Running head: Development during middle childhoodstage of development LifespanDevelopment and Learning EDC1100 Writtenassignment: Development during middle childhood stage of development JasonRalph 1102318Wordcount: 1955DueDate: 24 January 2018 Universityof Southern Queensland IntroductionIn a person’s life span there are various periods ofdevelopment. The different periods in a person’s life are; infancy, childhood,adolescence, adulthood and old age. Physical, cognitive and psychosocial aspectsplay a part in each developmental phase.
This essay will cover the childhooddevelopment period (age 6-12), specifically discussing the physical, cognitiveand psychosocial development. It will also discuss the educational and homeenvironments effect their development and have a brief overview of motor skillsdifficulties. The childhood period starts at six, when the child is in theirearly years of attending school and finishes the developmental period at 12,where puberty starts for most humans. The childhood period is extremelyimportant in relation to a person’s life as it sets up the base for the otherdevelopmental periods in their lifetime. Section 1:PhysicalMiddle childhood is a time of great development formany children. Despite significant individual differences, the rate of increasein stature during middle childhood is generally similar and regular until theonset of puberty (Shonkoff, 1983).
Middle childhood typically sees childrendevelop a slimmer and more athletic appearance. Both boys and girls tend togrow five to seven centimetres and gain about 3 kilograms a year until reachingpuberty (Houghton, Mifflin and Harcourt, 2018). Boys and girls will have similar body types untilthey both reach the puberty stage.
During this stage, children may experiencegrowing pains from their muscles lengthening and broadening. Skeletal growth inmiddle childhood is also associated with losing the deciduous teeth, or babyteeth (Houghton, Mifflin and Harcourt, 2018). It is essential that children of this age haveproper nutrition for standard growth and health. Middle childhood is arelatively healthy period; most children are immunised against major illnesses,and the death rate is the lowest in the life span.
Although accidents are theleading cause of death in middle childhood, from use of trampolines and otherdangerous activities (Papalia, Olds and Feldman, 2018).At this age, you are usually required to participate in a physical educationclass while attending school. Children participating in sport is important, especiallyat this age where creating habits are easier than in other stages in life. Manychildren, mostly boys, go into organised, competitive sports.
A sound physicaleducation program should aim at skill development and fitness for all children (Papalia, Olds and Feldman, 2018). CognitiveThe cognitivechanges children undergo during the middle childhood era are often morepronounced and noticeable than their physical changes (Morelli,2018). This is because there is a significant amount of braindevelopment throughout this time, and when paired with increasing lifeexperiences, allows the child to develop their way of interpreting externalinformation. Children’s thinking styles gradually become more logical, organised,and flexible as they enter Piaget’s “Concrete Operational” thinkingstage (Morelli, 2018).
At the start of middle childhood,the child enters the stage of concrete operations. The child begins to move outof his egocentric mind frame and becomes mindful of other people’s needs andwants. This development of a caring attitude allows the children to be morehumble in their everyday lives. There are three significant aspects ofcognitive development consisting of centration, decentration and conservation.Decentration normally occurs in middle childhood. Piaget discusses decentrationin a video by testing the children’s ability to comparethe volume of juice in each glass. Younger children tend to get fixed ononly one dimension of a situation, such as the height of a container, and maketheir judgment of how much stuff can be fit into that container based on thatsingle dimension. Other dimensions simply are not accounted for (Morelli,2018).
As children come through middle childhood they develop decentrationskills, where you are able to pay attention to numerous things at a time. Oncechildren develop decentration skills it advantages their everyday lives. Ithelps children enhance their math and reading skills by memorising the symbolsthey’ve learnt. Children who have not yet achieved decentration would not seeand appreciate words when they look at written sentences; instead, they wouldmore likely pay attention to the individual letters (Morelli,2018). PsychosocialSchool?agechildren spend more time away from home than they did as younger children, howevertheir most important relationships continue to be established at home.Children’s family relationships normally include their parents, grandparents,siblings, and extended family members (Houghton, Mifflinand Harcourt, 2018). Although their relationships tend to be more important athome, peer relationships are more prominent than ever before.
Peerrelationships can include friends in classes and around the school grounds,friends that live in the neighbourhood or nearby or if the child participatesin a team sport they may have teammates. During this middledevelopmental period, as communication and cognitive skills continue toimprove, children develop increased interpersonal awareness (Morelli, 2018). As a result of improving interpersonalawareness, children in the middle childhood stage start to respond to otherchildren’s emotions, intentions and needs. If children find a similarity inthese social skills it lays out the foundation of a close friendship.
Mostfriendships that occur in the middle childhood stage are from the same gender.This period in a child’s life generally sees a decrease in friends, as theysituate themselves with a smaller group of peers and maintain more valuedfriendships. Although, some children struggle to find themselves being part oflarger peer groups because of bullying. In some of these cases, children arephysically or emotionally harmed by bullies who taunt, tease, threaten oractually violently assault them (Morelli, 2018).
Section 2:EducationalEnvironmentA child entering the middle childhood development stageis starting off their formal education at primary school. By the end of middlechildhood, they are concluding primary school and beginning high school or insome cases, middle school. Children in this stage tend to spend more time awayfrom their families because of time at school and other activities. During the middlechildhood development, children are thought to be performing basic literacy andmathematics.
The educational environment plays an enormous part in a child’scognitive development. The child will learn how to remember, problem solve andmake decisions. The education development also plays an important part inpsychosocial development.
For several children, attending school for the firsttime they will be faced with their first exposure to a group setting, thereforeacquiring new social skills while interacting with their classmates. Physicaldevelopment in an educational environment is key to fine and gross motor skillsfor a child in the middle childhood stage, where schools expose various activities.From physical education to the art classroom, students learn all differentmotor skills. HomeEnvironment Middlechildhood is a transitional stage—a time when parents begin sharing power anddecision making with their children (Houghton, Mifflinand Harcourt, 2018).
Although a child will experience an increase ofresponsibility, parents must continue to have rules and boundaries. A child during the middle childhoodperiod may have increased freedom, such as going for a game of soccer withtheir friends. Although having more freedom can be delightful, it can also comewith additional chores around the house.
The majority of school?agechildren appreciate and enjoy their parents’ acceptance of their more adult?likerole in the family (Houghton, Mifflin and Harcourt,2018). While children spend less time in their home environment than everbefore, their parents still have a major influence in their life. The home environmentdoesn’t have such an impact regarding to physical and cognitive development asthe education environment does, although psychosocial does. Children’s parentshelp middle childhood children become who they are, reward them when they dosomething right, or discipline when they do something wrong.
Section 3:Motor Skills Difficulties and its effects ondevelopment during middle childhoodMotor skills are behavioural abilities or capacities. Gross motor skillsinvolve the use of large bodily movements, and finemotor skills involve the use of small bodily movements. Bothgross and fine motor skills continue to refine during middle childhood (Houghton, Mifflin and Harcourt, 2018).Although by middle childhood some motor skills would have been achieved. Motorskills can involve sitting upright and cutting a piece of paper and also moreadvanced motor skills are catching and kicking a football and writing a storyneatly. Duringmiddle childhood, children continue to build on and improve gross motor skills;the large-scale body movement skills such as walking and running that theyfirst learned during earlier developmental stages (Morelli, 2018). In the middle childhood stage, it is a timein a human’s life that you run faster, jump higher, throw further and skiplonger than previously possible.
The reason being, middle childhood agedchildren are able to gain their improved control and coordination due toincreases in their flexibility, balance and agility. Kids at this agealso learn how to synchronize the movement of their body’s various parts,allowing for the development of smoother, more coordinated whole-body movementroutines such as are needed for participating in organized sports (Morelli,2018). Young children learn from a young age how to use their hands in adetailed way, from cutting, drawing and painting. They learn life skills, suchas tying and untying their shoe laces and also brushing and flossing theirteeth, which help them in the future.
Due to their progress with regard to thegrowth and maturity of motor, cognitive, and social skills, many children willnow become capable and competitive participants on sports teams (Morelli, 2018). Childrenin middle childhood also continue to hone their fine motor skills which can bedistinguish from gross motor skills in that they require hand-eye coordination(Morelli, 2018). Middle childhood aged children show vast improvements overtheir schooling years. Their gross motor skills help their handwriting andtheir ability to write in cursive letters. The perfect example of a child’shand-eye coordination is art class, where they improve dramatically everyclass, semester and year throughout their childhood.
Children at this ageusually participate in lunch time activities, such as passing a ball or playinghandball. Middle childhood aged children usually play computer games, in mostscenarios children need to have good hand-eye coordination. Children’s easy useof communications tools such as cell phones and computers, which becomespossible as they master increasingly complex fine motor skills (Morelli, 2018).
Learning to play and instrument is another way to enhance different motorskills, as it can improve hand-eye coordination and create great confidence ifperforming in front a crowd. Middle childhood aged children can improve theirmotor skills in the school environment or a home environment. Night reading toa child before they go to sleep is great, however reading a book with a childat a time they are ready to learn is extremely important.
While in the car witha child, Simon says is always a great game to play for surrounding awareness.Taking a child to the playground to swing and climb around the obstacles willalso improve their motor skills. There are numerous activities such asswimming, hop scotch and wheelbarrow racing where you can enhance a child’smotor skill. ConclusionPhysical, cognitive and psychosocial are three typesof development over a middle childhoods person’s life.
This essay discussed thephysical, cognitive and psychosocial development and how educational and homeenvironments effect a child’s future. This essay also explained the importanceof developing motor skills in educational and home environments. To conclude,the middle childhood period is vital for physical, cognitive and psychosocialdevelopment in future developmental periods.