Sesame (Sesamum indicum l.) included in familyof Pedaliaccae, is an oldest familiaroil crop to human and has been part of human diet since classical times 1. It was placed at 9th position among the top13 oilseed crops which make up 90% of the world’s edible oil production 2.
Asthis sesame seed has extent nutritional significance, also have a neutraceutical and preservative properties andmore over it have many industrialapplications for this reason this alsoknown as Queen of oil seeds. This Sesameoil is the major dietary oil in many of Asian countries. The usual motivationof Sesame seeds cultivation is for the purpose of oil extraction which has manyculinary, industrial as well as pharmaceutical applications. Sesame oil isobtained by extraction by hydraulic press or by solvent extraction method withhexane as a solvent and then refining of that extracted oil. In some Asian countries sesame seeds areroasted at a temperature nearly 180-200°C for the time period of nearly 20-30minutes before the oil extraction.
This roasted seed oil has somewhat darkbrown in colour and this roasted seed oil has greater oxidative stability ascompared to un roasted seed oil 3, 4. The majorconstituents of sesame seed are oil, protein, carbohydrates, lignin’s, andminor constituents such as minerals. 6Compositionof sesame seed (per 100 g) Energy ( calories) 578 Moisture (%) 4.7 Fat (g) 51.9 Protein (g) 19.8 Carbohydrates (g) 18.4 Fiber (g) 10.8 Ash (g) 5.
2 Lignans (g) 1.9 K (mg) 400 Ca (mg) 1200 Fe (mg) 9.6 P (mg) 9.6 Mg (mg) 370 Na (mg) 2 Vitamin C (µg) 12 Vitamin A (IU) 10 Carotene (µg) 17 Thiamine (mg) 0.95 Riboflavin (mg) 0.25 Niacin (mg) 5.
1 Sesameseed contain 20% and its defatted form contains 50% of protein.As sesameoil includes superior quantity of mono unsaturated fatty acids (MUFA’s) thansaturated fatty acids (SFA’s) it can improves the health of consumers. Besidesthis MUFA’s this oil also contain bioactive compounds like phytosterols andtocopherols. The typical proportions of FA’s in sesame oil are in following way.5 Linoleic 42.9-54% Oleic 31.6-44% Palmatic Stearic 7.
0-9.7% 3.8-5.6% Sesaminand sesamoline are the most prolific fat soluble lignin’s present in sesameseeds. These sesamine and sesamoline contain benzene and furanose rings intheir structure 7.
Sesamol and sesaminol are formed with the refinement ofthease sesamin and sesamoline. Sesame oil has excellent stability to oxidationdue to presence of thease lignin’s 8. Structures of major fat soluble lignin’s present in sesameand refinement products of sesamolin Sesameseeds contain phytochemicals which particularly have anti oxidant, antifungal, hypolipidaemicand hypoglycaemic actions 9.
Chlorosesamone, hydraxysesamone, 2,3-epoxysesamone, anthrasesamones and other two anthraquinone derivatives arethe compounds having antifungal activities which are extracted from roots ofsesame plant 10. Tocopherol is a natural anti-oxidant and it is formedby only the oil seeds like sesame and other oil seeds. The tocopherol contentin sesame is different for individual locations and varieties. Normally thesesame oil mostly includes ?-tocopherol in range of 50 to 370 ppm and?-tocopherol in range of 90 to 390 ppm this difference in the content of theasetocopherol is due to their chemical nature 11.
The health benefits of theasetocopherols includes it act’s as reactive oxygen species scavenger , acts as a first line of defenseagainst lipid peraxidation and in cellmembranes it protects the PUFA’s from free radical attack 12,13. Sesamumindicum is used as external salve, emollient, tonic and diuretic14. Sesamin and Sesaminol are the two major elements of the sesame oil whichhave evidence to possess defensive action against several pharmacologicaleffects which includes thease acts as anti-carcinogenic, anti-oxidant, anti-hypertensive,and anti-inflammatory and also have cardio protective effects 15. Sesame oilis used as nutritional supplement for the purpose of increasing the cellresistance against lipid peraxidation by hindering the generation of reactiveoxygen free radicals 16.
Sesame oilhas capacity to increase the alpha tocopherol concentration in blood and tissueit was seen in rat fed containing with sesame seed or its lignin’s17.Besidesthis sesame oil showed that it have abundant free radical scavenging capacity inmethanolic fraction it is due to presence of phenolic compounds in it18. Apartfrom lipid peroxidation and liberation of reactive oxidative species sesame oilalso increases the activities of anti-oxidative enzymes like glutathioneperoxidise, superoxide dismutase and catalase in rodents in certain oxidativestress 19, 20.The implementation of sesame in regular diet it mayhelps in enhancing the flavour of daily consumed dishes.
Even though sesameseeds are not that much better sourcefor starch thease seeds have a pleasant flavour and its taste resembles thenuts, it can spread over soups ,salads, and the baked products can besupplemented with whole sesame grains to get attractive form that reform the final product texture.The meal which comes after oil extraction is good source for protein and especially it is potentialsource for metheonine which is an essential amino acid. So the meal is used inmany food product formulations as protein and metheonine supplement. This mealalso used in cattle feed and also as manure.
Apart from all thease benefitssesame seed also cause some allergic reactions for those who are susceptible tothease antioxidants and lignins.Generallysesame oil is referred as major source of edible oil, commonly refined sesameoil is used in some drug formulations and also many industrial preparations ofperfumes, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, paints varnishes and insecticides 21, 22.Some food products like tahin (paste/spreadmade from ground sesame seeds), halva are prepared by using sesame seeds in countrieslike Europe, USA, migrants from Africa and also native western consumers. Asthis sesame does not contain any gluten it is perfect diet for those people whohave allergic to gluten. In many countries like Chaina, Korea and other Asiancountries roasted sesame seeds used as toppings on many baked products like bread,biscuits, crackers etc