Chemistry

In terms of the second law, it would be more advantageous to prevent contamination tooth environment rather than to clean it up later. As a substance disperses, we have a much larger area that must be decontaminated. 13, As a process occurs, Saunas will increase; Saunas cannot decrease. Time, like ;Sunnis, only goes in one direction. This reaction is kinetically slow but thermodynamically favorable (GAG O). Thermodynamics only tells LIST if a reaction can occur.

TO answer the question will it occur, one also needs to consider the kinetics (speed of reaction).The ultraviolet light provides the activation energy for this slow reaction to occur. Possible arrangements for one molecule: 1 way Both are equally probable. Possible arrangements for two molecules: I way 2 ways, most probable Possible arrangement for three molecules: 3 ways equally most probable ;Sure = ! AH/T; heat flow (OH) into or out of the system dictates Lesser. If heat flows into the surroundings, the random motions Of the surroundings increase, and the entropy of the surroundings increases. The opposite is true when heat flows from the surroundings into the system (an endothermic reaction).Although the driving force described here really results from the change in entropy of the surroundings, it is often described in terms of energy.

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Nature tends to seek the lowest possible energy. Note that these substances are not in the solid state but are in the aqueous state; water molecules are also present. There is an apparent increase in ordering when these ions are placed in water as compared to the separated state.The hydrating water molecules must be in a highly ordered arrangement when surrounding these anions, 18. 9. AGE = ‘ART In K = AHA TASTE; HEX(as) H+(as) Aka reaction; the value of Aka for HP is less than one, while the other hydrogen halide acids have Aka 1. In terms Of AGE, HP must have a positive BAG organ value, While the Other HEX acids have Gorgon O.

The reason for the sign change in the Aka value, benzene HP versus HCI, Hub, and HI is entropy. AS for the dissociation Of HE is very large and negative. There is a high degree of ordering that occurs as the water molecules associate (hydrogen bond) With the small ions.The entropy Of hydration strongly opposes HP dissociating in water, so much so that it Bonneville the favorable hydration energy making HP a weak acid. One can determine EASE and OHO for the reaction using the standard entropies and standard enthalpies of formation in Appendix 4 then use the equation AGE – AHA T;SE. One can also use the standard free energies of formation in Appendix 4 And finally, one can use He’s law to calculate AGE. Here, reactions having known AGE values are manipulated to determine AGE for a different reaction.For temperatures other than EXEC, AGE is estimated using the AGE – AHA ! TASTE equation.

The assumptions made are that the and EASE values determined trot Appendix 4 data are temperature-independent. We use the same AHA and EASE values as determined when T = SEC; then we plug in the new temperature in Kelvin into the equation to estimate LEG at the new temperature. The sign of GAG tells us if a reaction is spontaneous or not at whatever concentrations are present (at constant T and P). The magnitude of BAG equals wham.When GAG O, the magnitude tells us how much work, in theory, could be harnessed from the reaction.

When GAG > O, the magnitude tells us the minimum amount of work that must be supplied to make the reaction occur, AGE gives us the same information only when the incinerations tort all reactants and products are at standard conditions (1 ATM for gases, I M for solute). These conditions rarely occur, LEG – ! ART In K; from this equation, one can calculate K for a reaction if AGE is known at that temperature. Therefore, AGE gives the equilibrium position for a reaction.

To determine K at a temperature other than EXEC, one needs to know AGE at that temperature, We assume AHA and EASE are temperature-independent and use the equation AGE = AHA – TASTE to estimate AGE at the different temperature. For K = I, we want AGE O, which occurs venue AHA TASTE Again, assume AHA and SSE are temperature-independent; then solve for T (= AHA?SE). At this temperature, K I because AGE = O_ This only works for reactions where the signs of OHO and EASE are the same (either both positive or both negative).When the signs are opposite, K will always be greater than I (when AHA is negative and SSE is positive) or K will always be less than 1 (when OHO is positive and EASE is negative).

When the signs Of AHA and BASE are opposite, K can never equal 1 The light source for the first reaction is necessary for kinetic reasons. The first reaction is just too slow to occur unless a light source is available. The kinetics of a reaction are independent of the thermodynamics off reaction.Even though the first reaction is more favorable thermodynamically (assuming standard conditions), it is unfavorable for kinetic reasons, The second reaction has a negative AGO value and is a fast reaction, so the second reaction occurs very quickly.

When considering if a reaction will occur, thermodynamics and kinetics must both be considered. Using El Chatterer’s principle, a decrease in pressure (volume increases) will favor the side with the greater number of particles. Thus 2 1(g) will be favored at low pressure. Looking tag: + ART In (PEP/ PI 2 In(PEP / Pl 2) ; Owen = PI 2 10 ATM and GAG is positive (not spontaneous).

But at PI PI 2 = 0. 10 ATM, the logarithm term is negative. If ART In IQ AGO, then GO becomes negative, and the reaction is spontaneous. Exercises Spontaneity, Entropy, and the Second Law of Thermodynamics: Free Energy 23. A, b, and c; from our own experiences, salt water, colored water, and rust form without any outside intervention. It takes an outside energy source to clean a bedroom, so this process is not spontaneous. C and d; it takes an outside energy source to build a house and to launch and pep a satellite in orbit, so these processes are not spontaneous.We draw all the possible arrangements of the two particles in the three levels.

Total E = The most likely total energy is 2 k. 0kJ2kJ4kJ1kJ1kJ2kJ2kJ3kJ3kJ a. H2O at COCO and O.

S ATM; higher temperature and lower pressure means greater volume and hence larger positional probability, b. NO at STEP has the greater volume. C.

H2O(l) has a larger positional probability than H2O(s), 28, Of the three phases (solid, liquid, and gas), solids are most ordered (have the smallest positional probability) and gases are most disordered (have the largest positional probability).