Meaning is not just transmitted but also understood. In this write-up, illustrate the process of communication using the interpersonal communication model which helps to outline the basic process involved in a typical communication exchange, though it is a simplification to hat really happens in a real life situation.
INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION PROCESS
Interpersonal communication basically refers to communication which is between two individuals.The sender is the one who converts the idea into a message. This is what is referred to as encoding and it may take the form of spoken words, gestures or may also be written.
Message The message is the raw idea processed into a form that can better be understood by the receiver. Meaning is attached to the message and may vary from one person to another, The message transmitted will be affected by the code or group to symbols used to transfer meaning, the context of the message itself and he decisions that the source makes in selecting and arranging both the codes and the content.Channel It is the medium through which the message passes through from the sender to the receiver. In an organizational setup, a transmission channel is either formal or informal. It is formal if established by the organization and informal if not. Channels include a variety of structures and systems including the mouth, television sets, mobile phones, postal systems, among others.
The sender must therefore choose the channel that is most appropriate to ensure that the receiver species the message as he intends. Barrier A barrier is a factor that hampers effective communication.It may lead to distortion Of the message or even prevent the receiver from receiving the message at all. These barriers are discussed in detail later in this write-up.
Receiver This is the person to whom the message is intended. The receiver may also be referred to as the decoder since he is the one who interprets the message. The receiver attaches meaning to the message conveyed in order to understand it in the form that the sender intended. The receivers decoding ability is depends on his attitude, cognitive skills and his socio-cultural background.Feedback It forms the final link to an interpersonal communication process.
Feedback refers to the receivers response or reaction to the message. It may take the form to verbal responses, gestures, questioning or no response at all. Feedback helps to evaluate whether the receiver indeed received the message and if he did, whether or not he was able to comprehend it as was intended. There are three basic types of feedback; * Informal feedback – where the receiver provides information to the source for example, in form of an answer to a question.Corrective feedback – where the receiver responds by giving an opinion different from that conveyed by the sender. K Reinforcing feedback – where the receiver responds either positively or negatively depending on his view on the nature of the message.
BARRIERS TO EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION
Language barrier Language barriers may arise in a variety of forms. People of different ethnic backgrounds, for example, use different languages and are likely not to understand each other. Similarly, communication between the old and the young n the modern world has been rendered somewhat difficult.
This is due to the use of sheen and slang among the youth which has proved hard for the older generation to understand as it changes With every dawn. Language barriers may also exist between people who exhibit different levels of education. A doctor, for instance may use a variety Of complex medical terms While trying to explain a certain medical condition to a patient who knows nothing about the medical profession. In such a case, if no elaboration is made to help the patient understand, effective communication will not have taken place.Inability of a deaf and dumb person to communicate with one who is not is also referred to as a language barrier, Physiological harriers The physical state of the receiver is affected by factors such as illness or being tired. These factors hamper communication in that they minimize the receiver’s ability to pay attention to the message especially where the message is conveyed verbally.
Comprehension of the message is therefore impossible to achieve. Psychological barriers A stressed out receiver is likely to be so preoccupied with personal concerns and ay miss out on a lot especially during a conversation.Emotional instability too may hinder effective communication, gore example, a receiver who is irritable may make it difficult for the sender to convey the message or may easily misinterpret the message Psychological barriers also include cases of egocentrics and a negative attitude. The ‘know it all attitude’ and the negative attitude towards certain units or subjects among many students has impacted negatively On the learning process in many university and college institutions. For learning to take lace, effective communication must be fostered between lecturer and their students.Physical barriers The technology or channel used plays a crucial role in ensuring that effective communication is realized. However. Faulty or defective channels of transmission hamper the communication process.
Many are the times that people have been prevented from communicating due to power failure or low battery charge in phones. Other than technological failures, noise too is viewed as a physical barrier. It prevents the receiver from perceiving aural stimuli and thus prevents hearing.Long distance between the sender and the receiver may also hinder effective communication it may lead to distortion and misinterpretation of gestures and words. Timeliness Messages often stimulate action, It is therefore important that the transmission to the message be well timed to give the receiver a chance to respond or react promptly. The time interval should neither be too long nor too short.
SOLUTIONS TO THE BARRIERS
- One should consider using a tactic that considers the message and start with positive words where the basic message is negative. This reduces the chances of n emotionally unstable person acting up once he or she receives the message Also learn to vary your language with relation to the audience or receiver.
If the receiver is a child, use a simpler and gentler language than you would use incase of an adult.
- The sender should learn to adapt to the behavior of the receiver. Poor instance, while making a conversation the receiver may require the sender tom slow down and repeat what he is saying over and over. This would require patience and the sender must be careful to ensure that he does not rush the receiver.