TAD to slowly move them during treatmentCan be

TAD are very small (1.5 – 2 mm wide) titanium alloy screw Classified Passive Fixed treatment appliance used more widely in orthodontic treatments. Provide good anchorage, are fixed to bone between the roots of teeth, or segment of teeth or roof of the mouth. Then connected to a fixed brace to slowly move them during treatmentCan be placed on the maxilla or the mandible bone. Positioning areas can be the palate,the area bellow the nose or above the chin the spaces in between teeth, and the back of the mouth.Measure about 6 to 8 mm long and 1.2 to 2.3 mm in diameter. Their shape is either cylindrical or lightly conical. To place them, they are either drilled or tapped in the boneIn 1998, the first mini-implants were used. They were then about 2 mm in diameter and were placed in different places in the mouth to test their stabilityMini-implants do not damage teeth or other mouth tissues. Success rates are greater than 80%. The minority cause little nuisance. And 10-15 % of them become loose, usually within the first few months. If this occurs then it’s rarely painful can be replaced if necessary Indications1) Intrusion of molars to treat open bite2) Retraction or firing of teeth3) Extrusion of posteriors in opposing arch to treat deep bite. Extrusion of anteriors in the same arch to treat open bite) ,4) Asymmetric tooth movement.    5) Closure of spaces. 6  Up righting tilted teeth Contraindications• Metabolic bone diseases patients• Patients taking suppressive therapy for the immune system• Patients take chronic therapy with steroids or bisphosphonates• Patients who have severe neurological or psychological problems• Poor quality or quantity of bone tissue• Infections problems• Allergic reactions to specific materials• Patients receiving radiotherapy• Insulin-dependent diabetes and more susceptible to infections patients• Poor oral hygiene • Patients who have not completed skeletal growth Advantages:• Insertion and removal is easy• Cost•comfort for the patient• Not need patient compliance• Use in different anatomical areas: pit incisive , canine pit , crest infra-zygomatic, pre-maxillary region, symphysis mandibular, retro-molar zone, pit beneath the jaw.• They are stable , but they cannot still for the duration of the orthodontic load . Disadvantages:• Different insertion sites that have different anatomical features• Instability Rotational• Mobility of screw and fracture after removal•will decrease the effect of anchorage• Irritation to soft tissue• cause root Injury             Orthodontic mini-implants are a powerful aid for the orthodontic practitioner in resolving challenging malocclusions. Mini implants placed in alveolar bone are effective in adolescent patients, and marked improvement is often observed, even in patients with skeletal problems. Thus skeletal anchorage should serve merely to expand the horizon of orthodontic services we can cater to our patients and can take up new challenges which were considered limitations earlier.  Orthodontic mini-implants are challenging malocclusions but, Implant failure might increase treatment time and good knowledge are affecting miniscrew success will help us to increase their success rate, thereby desired treatment results and take less timeMini-implants are effective as anchorage, and their success depends on good knowledge will help us to increase their success rate