Taekwondo is a Korean martial art, characterized by its
emphasis on head-height kicks, jumping and spinning kicks, and fast kicking
techniques. The name Taekwondo means the way of the foot and fist (Ronald A. Southwick). Various
martial artists combined the elements of Karate and Chinese martial arts with traditional
Korean martial arts traditions in the 1940s and 1950s. Taekwondo, usually was
thought by most people as just a way of fighting and as being a brutal sport.
People consider it brutal because of the kicks, punches, throws, and arm and wrist
locks as they usually are not open minded enough to see the way it benefits
people especially children. Although a majority of it includes fighting,
taekwondo also helps a person with self-confidence, self-defence and
The eye is a sensory organ of sight. Various
structures in the eye enable it detects light and turns into an image that can
be recognised by the brain. Among the structures are cornea, lens, and retina.
When the opponent image light rays reflect off and enter the eyes through the
cornea, the cornea bends, or refracts, the rays that can pass through the round
hole of the pupil. The iris will the open and close, making the pupil bigger or
smaller to adjust the light entering the eye. The light rays then pass through
the lens, which changes shape, so it can further bend the rays and focus them
on the retina. The retina, which sits at the back of the eye is a thin layer of
tissue that contains millions of tiny light-sensing nerve cells. These nerve
cells are called rods and cones because of their distinct shapes. Cones are
concentrated in the centre of the retina, in an area called the macula. When
there is bright light, cones provide clear, sharp central vision and detect
colours and fine details. Rods are located outside the macula and extend all
the way to the outer edge of the retina. They provide peripheral or side
vision. Rods also allow the eyes to detect motion and help us see in dim light
and at night. These cells in the retina convert the light into electrical
impulses. The optic nerve sends these impulses to the brain, which produces an
The ear is one of the
sensory organs that help us to hear. An interesting point to note is that the
ear not only helps in hearing but also helps us to maintain the balance and
equilibrium of our body. Without the ear, we would not be able to balance our
body with respect to the gravitational pull of the earth. The inner ear is the part
that helps us to balance our body. The inner ear is involved in both the
functions of hearing and balancing. Two structures of the inner ear help
to maintain balance and equilibrium. The three semi-circular canals that are
interconnected and positioned at right angles to each other just like a
gyroscope. The vestibule has the saccule and utricle that connects the
semi-circular canals to the cochlea. The semi-circular canals and the vestibule
of the inner ear together help to maintain the balance and equilibrium of the
body. Extreme vibrations can rapture the eardrum and ossicles causing hearing
loss. Therefore, protective gears should be wear during a sparring.
In terms of sparring, it is
divided into one-step sparring and free sparring. One-step sparring consists of
two partners exercising pre-arranged, attack and counterattack techniques.
One-step sparring is the first step in order to be able to do free sparring. Practicing one-step sparring requires a high
level of concentration and cooperation on both people. The attacker must
perform each attack with proper execution and consistent timing. The defender
must react to the attack and counter attack without hesitation. Techniques
should be practiced extensively to a point where they develop a sub-motor
pattern that reacts out of instinct, without having to stop and think. In free
sparring, only light to medium contact is made. Protective gear is worn in accordance
with World Taekwondo Federation (WTF) standards. Only yellow belts and above
are eligible to participate in contact free sparring. Hand and foot techniques are
executed according to World Taekwondo Federation rules in order to score points
against your opponent. Although students are attacking and defending with great
speed and power, the emphasis is on controlled techniques, skills application
and safety. Each sparring round is formally begun and ended with a bow of
mutual respect. (Wallace Taylor, January 2010).
In the mechanism of side
kicking, the first step is the athlete stands in the L-stance forearm guarding
block and the right foot forward. Both feet should be slightly pointed inwards
and the toes of the foot at the front should be lined up with the heel of the
back foot. Both knees are slightly bent. The term ‘starting posture’ comprises
information on the stance and the place where the attempted attack starts.
The athlete moves the back foot forward in the direction of the intended
impact. The hands are held up in a guard. When the feet have touched the
ground, the ankle joint tenses and the athlete energetically pushes the right foot
off the ground. As a result of the right foot take off
the force pushes the foot upwards. Further movement is facilitated by the
muscles of the lower limb taking control over the movement. Thus, the knee and
hip joints are extended (J Hum Kinet, 2011).
In the comparison of athlete
versus the non-athletes, non-athletes tend to get an injury faster than
athletes as their muscles durability and flexibility is not trained.
Furthermore, it takes more time for the injury to heal for non-athletic person.
Most athletes, have a special recovery sessions. That is how they are much
stronger in the case of muscles durability. Athletic types have better overall health and has less
percentage to develop certain diseases such as type 2 diabetes and
osteoporosis. Regular exercise boosts your immune system and lowers the risk of
serious health conditions such as cancer and heart disease. Taekwondo can also maintain
cholesterol levels and blood pressure.
People who are in good shape
physically have greater aerobic capacity, meaning their lungs and heart are
able to provide more oxygen to muscles. They have also learned how to breathe
properly during exercise through training and coaching. Oxygen diffusion rate
of athletic person is higher because of their lung capacity such as the rib
cage enlargement and diaphragm contractions, which decreases the pressure in
lungs thus increase rate of diffusion. They also do the proper warm up
exercises before competing. As long as there is enough oxygen, the body will
not generate lactic acid to get the energy it needs. Athletes also know how to
pace themselves and not sprint more often than necessary. Frequent sprinting
will result in lactic acid build up.
Every person wants to feel
safe. Every person wants to be able to protect him or herself and loved ones.
For this reason, many people turn to martial arts. Taekwondo offers a person
all the tools and techniques needed to adequately protect themselves if needed.
In addition to blocking, kicking and striking techniques, students will learn
grabs, throws, and techniques to free themselves from an attacker (Wallace
Taylor, January 2010).