DoeS Geographical and FOOD INTAKE INFLUENCE HUMAN TASTE Perception: a survey of dusun ETHNIC in Sabah, Malaysia
This survey was carried out to find sensing threshold and gustatory sensation perceptual experience for three basic gustatory sensations ( sugariness, coarseness and tartness ) based on geographical location ( interior and coastal ) and nutrient consumption among the Dusuns ethnic in Sabah. 200 healthy voluntaries aged 20 to 55 old ages were selected. Hedonic trial ( 9-scale ) was used to find the gustatory sensations penchant of all gustatory sensations studied. Self-administered nutrient wont questionnaire was used to enter and categorized nutrient consumption into three usage groups related to gustatory sensations studied ( low, medium and high ) . There was a important difference ( p & lt ; 0.
05 ) in rancid nutrient usage/intake between both topics in geographical locations but no important difference for Sweet and salty nutrient intake/usage. However, there was correlativity between gustatory sensation penchant and nutrient frequence consumption for all gustatory sensations in this survey.
Taste, gustatory sensation perceptual experience, geographics, nutrient consumption.
Centripetal properties of nutrients are widely considered as the chief factors in nutrient pick and ingestion.
In contrast, selling surveies on determiners of nutrient ingestion are mostly determined by gustatory sensation of the peculiar nutrient ( Drewnowski, 1999 ) . Hence, survey of the perceptual experiences and penchants for sensory ( gustatory sensation ) qualities on nutrients across different civilizations produced valuable informations that enhanced our apprehension on innate and environmental influences on such perceptual experiences and penchants ( Prescott and Bell, 1995 ) . However, to the day of the month, there are few surveies was conducted to understand the fluctuation in nutrient picks, gustatory sensation penchants and their causes among persons and groups. Most surveies focus on human physiology ( aging, disease, organic structure weight ) as the chief factor of fluctuation in human gustatory sensation penchants and perceptual experiences.A figure of surveies revealed that people tend to hold similarity in strength favoritism from low to high degrees of tastants but there are differences in the magnitude of evaluation between them ( Laing et al.
, 1994 ; Prescott et Al, 1997 ; Holt et al.,2000 ) . Hence, there is grounds that unconditioned responses to savor exist, peculiarly positive to sweetness and negative to bitterness ( Rozin, 1996 ) . However, experience through exposure to cultural culinary arts and dietetic wonts can modify these unconditioned penchants.
Culture and dietetic consumption are of import determiners in gustatory sensation perceptual experience and penchant of nutrient. Recently, a few surveies have compared gustatory sensation sensitiveness and penchants of different cultural groups and states. Holt et Al. ( 2000 ) reported that Malaysians ‘ penchant of sweeter nutrient compared to Australians is related to higher sugar consumption among Malaysians. On the other manus, Jamel et Al. ( 1996 ) found that people who are populating in urban countries with high sugar consumption preferable sweeter tea compared to people who are populating in rural country. Therefore, purpose of this present survey was to compare gustatory sensation sensitiveness and penchant in relation with dietetic consumption between two chief geographical locations ( interior vs. coastal ) in the same cultural group, the Dusun.
2.0 Materials and Methods
One hundred Dusun topics from coastal country ( 20 – 55yr ; 41 males, 59 females ) and 100 Dusun topics from interior country ( 20 – 55yr ; 42 males, 52 females ) were recruited. They must be healthy, non pregnant, non on a curative diet and live at least 5 old ages in that peculiar country. The average ± SD age was 36.82 ± 11.55yr and 39.
78 ± 10.58yr for coastal and interior country ( no important different ) . Most of the topic had been populating in their country at least for 15 old ages.
Three basic gustatory sensations were studied ; sugariness, coarseness and tartness. For each gustatory sensation, specific compounds were chosen to stand for the gustatory sensations: saccharose, Nacl, and citric acid. All compounds were dissolved in distilled H2O and commercially available merchandises such as tea, orange juice, and mushroom soup.
In entire, topics completed 4 centripetal trials: ( 1 ) tasted and clean solution ( threshold ) ( 2 ) tea ( 3 ) soup ( 4 ) orange juice. However, commercial merchandises available vary from trade name to trade name for their strength of gustatory sensation compound ( sucrose, Nacl, citric acid ) . Therefore, pilot trial were used to find the degree to be used in this survey. Two phases of pilot trial were conducted by 15 topics from both countries. Subjects ranked 5 commercial trade names for each type of merchandise in order of gustatory sensation strength. Brand with the lowest tonss in gustatory sensation strength was used as the based sample. In the 2nd phase, topics were rated the strength and palatableness of based merchandise and based merchandise + gustatory sensation compound ( table 2.
0 ) by utilizing hedonistic graduated table ( mention processs ) . Five samples which covered a broad strength scope and non being unpalatable were chosen as sample in this survey ( table 2.1 ) ( Prescott et al, 1997 ) .
All solutions and merchandises were prepared 24hours before proving ( tea, orange juice ) except for soup 2hours before proving.Similarly, stimuli concentrations for gustatory sensation threshold were determined by pilot trial. However, concentration tested based on old surveies and preliminary experiment. Concentration with high topics can be detected as acknowledgment threshold were chosen as based.
Six concentration [ ( 3 ) go uping 0.1 log stairss and ( 3 ) falling 0.1 log stairss from based ] were administered as stimulation in this survey ( table? ) .
Table 1 Concentration ( g/L ) of gustatory sensation stimulations in merchandises.
TeaSucrose concentration ( g/L )Sample 1 ( Baseline )Sample 2Sample 3Sample 4Sample 5017386598Orange juiceCitric acid concentration ( g/L )Sample 1 ( Baseline )Sample 2Sample 3Sample 4Sample 5025914Mushroom SoupNaCl Concentration ( g/L )Sample 1 ( Baseline )Sample 2Sample 3Sample 4Sample 50371216
The topics started to measure the stimulation after fasting for an hr. This survey was conducted in a hall.
Fifteen flexible cells ( 45cmx45cmx50cm ) were used to replace sensory set up in the research lab to avoid panels discussed among them while measuring the samples ( Penfield & A ; Campbell, 1990 ) .
1 Taste Threshold
3-alternative forced pick ( ASTM-E679 ) was used in the threshold measuring with concentration presented in go uping order. At each concentration, sample set consisted of one trial and two clean samples in identical manner. Therefore, each sample coded with a 3 digit figure and tasted from left-centre-right order. Subjects begins tasted the samples from lowest concentration and returns consistently towards the higher concentration.
Within each set/concentration, topics indicated that sample which is different from the two others. If the topics can non readily know apart, a conjecture must be made. Trials were completed when topics ‘ ranges a set wherein the trial samples right identified. However, up and down processs were applied to guarantee that sensing that made by the topics were dependable and precise. Subjects were asked to rinse the oral cavity with mineral H2O before tasted each and every sample. To avoid weariness, trial divided into 3 Sessionss harmonizing to the gustatory sensation.
So that, there a spread and clip for topics to rest which can avoid weariness and prejudice.
2.3.2 Hedonic trial
Subjects tasted the samples and asked to detect the products/ samples on strength of gustatory sensations ( sugariness, coarseness, tartness ) and grade of wishing on the peculiar concentration/level of strength.
Then, topics marked their evaluation on a separate mark sheet incorporating graduated table on merchandises they were tasted. For both scale, 9-scale were used which ground tackles really weak to the left and really strong to the right on 135mm line. Intensity graduated table used the terminal points of none ( left ) and highly ( right ) together with property name ( gustatory sensation ) while hedonistic graduated table used terminal points of disfavor highly ( left ) and like highly ( right ) . Each sample coded with a 3 digit figure and tasted from left-centre-right order. Subjects were told to rinse their oral cavity with mineral H2O until no aftertaste remained before tasted another sample.
4 Food Intake
A nutrient frequence questionnaire was used based on Pangborn & A ; Pecore ( 1982 ) and Norimah & A ; Haja ( 2003 ) with some alteration on nutrient points. Food with high sugar, salt and acidic content were selected as nutrient points in the FFQ. Food points were selected based on 24-hour callback done on topics in the pilot trial among local people in the survey countries. A marking system was given to each nutrient point based o frequence of consumption ( monthly consumption severally ) .
2.5 Data Analysis
Datas were analyzed utilizing SPSS ( version 13.0 ) . Two-way assorted ANOVA was used to find the chief differences and interaction between each group ( location ) .
Simple consequence trial ( Independent T- trial ) with bonferoni rectification was used to compare different degree of solutions between groups. Spearman correlativity was used to foretell relationship between nutrient consumptions – gustatory sensation penchants ; every bit good as strength evaluation – liking evaluation. A p-value of 0.05 or lower is reported as significantly different.
1.1 Sweetness strength
The average strength evaluation for both groups averaged over the five saccharose degrees which did non differ in their evaluation. However, each degree being significantly different to each others ( F1, 78, = 61.61 ; P & lt ; 0.
05 ) . Adding of saccharose had impact on wishing evaluation with each degree signicantly different than old degrees after 17g/L ( F1, 78, = 17.65 ; P & lt ; 0.05 ) .
There was synergistic consequence [ degree x beginning: ( F1, 78, = 4.04 ; P & lt ; 0.05 ) ] with coastal group holding significantly higher wishing evaluation compared to interior groups at 38g/l and 98g/l tastants ( P & lt ; 0.
025 ) . In contrast, there was a negative correlativity between strength and liking evaluation for sugariness ( rs=-0.34 ; P & lt ; 0.01 ) .
3.1.2 Sweetness Wishing
2.1 Saltiness strength
The average strength evaluation for both groups showed a additive addition with extra NaCl in soups and each degree being significantly different to each others ( F1, 78, = 89.59 ; P & lt ; 0.05 ) .
Coastal groups give higher evaluation compared to interior topics at 2g/L, 5g/L and 14g/L tastants ( P & lt ; 0.025 ) but there was no synergistic consequence ( F1, 78, = 11.38 ; P & lt ; 0.05 ) between chief factors. Above 2g/L added sample, wishing for the coarseness of the samples start to diminish on wishing However, there were no important differences between those two groups on wishing evaluation ( p & lt ; 0.05 ) . In contrast, there was a negative correlativity between strength and liking evaluation for coarseness ( rs=- 0.37, P & lt ; 0.
01 ) .
3.2.2 Saltiness Wishing
3.3.1 Sourness Intensity
The average strength for both groups averaged over the five extra citric acid degrees to the juices which each degree being significantly different with each others ( F1, 78, =79.72 ; P & lt ; 0.
05 ) . However, there was no important difference between two groups for strength evaluation. The add-on of citric acid to the juice decreased the liking evaluation where a sharper diminution in wishing with the add-on of 3g/L citric acid to the samples ( F1, 78, = 23.
49 ; P & lt ; 0.05 ) . There was no synergistic consequence between chief factors and no important difference between two groups ‘ location. In contrast, there was a negative correlativity between strength and liking evaluation for tartness ( rs=-0.35, p & lt ; 0.01 ) .
32 Sourness Wishing
3.4 Tastes vs. frequence of nutrient Intake
Through all gustatory sensation favoritism, both topic ‘s group showed averaged evaluation for strength evaluation which both of them showed a additive addition with add-on of compounds to the samples tested. This consequence showed that people will hold similar interact and contemplation towards gustatory sensation favoritism from low to high degree of gustatory sensation esthesis. So that, this peculiar state of affairs can be related to innate penchants for tastants ( Rozin, 1996 ) .On the other manus, there were important differences between groups in Sweet and salty gustatory sensation but it does n’t look in rancid gustatory sensation.
In contrast, there was important difference in salts nutrient intake merely compared with other two nutrient consumption. It is suggest that different in salty nutrient frequence ingestion related to strength and wishing evaluation in salt penchants. By and large, we had expected the evaluation for salty gustatory sensation to be higher in coastal country group compared to interior group with associate to their nutrient consumption which connected to handiness of nutrient and beginnings surround them. Furthermore, Laing et Al. ( 1993 ) suggested differences in responses of topics from different civilizations to chemosensory stimulations are restricted to preference behavior originating from experience instead than from genetically-based influences. However, consequence from correlativity coefficient did n’t uncover such association either for Sweet or salty gustatory sensation. In contrast, surveies by James et Al.
( 1996 ) showed that difference in gustatory sensation penchant and nutrient consumption related to location and continuance of life between capable in urban and suburban.From the consequence, most of the topics preferred degree of compounds added in based merchandises which it ‘s commercial merchandises. So that, we can concluded that this commercial nutrient merchandise are familiar and acceptable by consumers. Additional of compounds to the samples will consequence on evaluation of strength and liking of the sample. However, their form of evaluation was non invariably staying the same through all degrees of samples particularly in wishing evaluation. Curia et Al. ( 2001 ) reported that scaling phrase and magnitude besides can impact topic ‘s evaluation due to translation linguistic communication and topics tend to avoid utmost phrase on the graduated table which can take to higher similarity in gustatory sensation favoritism between topics.
This survey indicates that there were differences in salty gustatory sensation penchants and nutrient consumption in salty nutrient. However, there ‘s no association revealed that nutrient consumption influence the happening. Further survey should be done with more accurate step of grading and nutrient consumption method. A larger figure of experimental topics should be taken.
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