The activities in a specific area. Solid waste

The term solid waste is a broad term
that includes the useless or unwanted solid materials produced from commercial,
residential and industrial activities in a specific area. Solid waste can be
classified according to its origin (industrial, domestic, commercial, construction
and institutional), according to its potential hazard (non-toxic, toxic,
radioactive, infectious, flammable, etc.), as well as according to solid waste
contents (organic material, metal, glass, plastic paper, etc.) (Femi and
Oluwole, 2013)., Improving standards of living, increasing affluence increasing
of population growth rates, together with increasing levels of industrial and commercial
activities in urban areas around the world, are the main causes for a
significant increase in quantities of waste production. More effective disposal
of solid waste is necessary; even in countries that burn or recycle a large
share of their waste and therefore treatment of ashes resulting from burning
solid waste remains an issue (Brockerhoff, 2000; Proske et al., 2005). Improper
solid waste management causes soil, air and water contamination and is often
the result of a lack of financial resources. The problem of municipality solid
waste is very serious in third-world countries, where 80% of the world
population lives and this often relates to a lack of financial resources
(Al-Ansari, 2013). Waste-related diseases are the main cause for the loss of
10% of each person’s productive life. The present day municipal solid waste
(MSW) generated reaches 277 million tonnes per year (United Nations, 2010). Low
and middle-income countries generate (12.2% and 57.1% )of that waste, while
high income countries generate (30.7%) (United Nations, 2010). This figure is
expected to increase to 677 million tonnes in 2025. The percentage of solid waste
generated in high income countries will be (12.7%), while it will be (16.4% and
70.9 %) in middle and low income countries, respectively (United Nations,
2010). Management of MSW involves several processes, including reducing
quantities of waste, reusing, recycling and recovering energy, as well as the
incineration and burial of waste in landfills (Moeinaddini et al., 2010).