ancient Greek philosopher Diogenes said that “The
foundation of every state is the education of its youth”. This is still
applicable today, and has worrying implications for the situation faced by the
Philippines now. Based on a survey conducted by the Philippine
Statistics Authority on 2013 (the 2013 Functional Literacy, Education and Mass
Media Survey (FLEMMS), one in every ten Filipino Children do not attend school.
This totals to 4 million Filipino children. While there have been attempts to
alleviate this problem through Alternative Learning Systems (ALS) and other programs
by government (such as the Pantawid Pamilya Program) and non-government
institutions (such as the Adult Night High School by La Salle Green Hills),
there are still ‘out-of-school’ youth in the Philippines who still receive no
education. It is also noted that the public also has a lack of knowledge about
the existence of these programs or have a negative opinion of it. According to
DepEd, there are multiple slots still available for OSY in their ALS programs.
These children do not have the advantages education brings to people for them
to succeed in life.
Increasing drop-out rates pose a huge threat
to any country. Leonard and Gudino (2016) found that out-of-school youth have a
significant risk of low academic achievement and poor mental health, which may
lead to juvenile delinquency and crime. Secondly, out-of-school youth can be
abused for labor for them to be able to support their families. Lastly, it can
also cause a cycle of poverty. Overall, the problem needs attention since it
affects multiple aspects of society.
There is a need for further research not only on the possible solutions to the
increasing dropout rates, but also the lack of awareness or negative opinion on
the existing programs for ‘out-of-school’ youth.
Vayachuta and Ubol (2016)
stated that the factors for children
dropping out of school include economic, societal, and psychological reasons.
The survey conducted by the PSA also cited union or marriage as a top reason
for out-of-school youth’s to drop out. “The 2013 FLEMMS results also showed
that of the nearly 4 million out-of-school children and youth, 22.9 percent
have entered into union or marriage. Another 19.2 percent cited insufficient
family income to send child to school as the reason for not attending school
(this refers to all educational expenses other than tuition fee), while 19.1
percent lack the interest in attending school.” (Philippines Statistics
Authority, 2013). Aside from this, according to the Department of Education,
there is a lack of enrollments to Alternative Learning Systems.
While out-of-school youth
is often placed in a negative light, there are some out-of-school youth that
actually want to improve their lives, and are just victims of circumstance.
Also, while the Alternative Learning System and other programs helped many
out-of-school youth graduate, there is either a lack of knowledge about it, or
a negative opinion. According to the
Department of Education, there are multiple slots still available for
‘out-of-school’ youths in their Alternative Learning Systems. This can show
that there is a lack of knowledge or negative opinion about Alternative
Learning Systems. Despite this, out-of-school youth have also given up and
spend their time in basketball courts, computer shops, and the streets.
Both the government and
other organizations in the Philippines and worldwide have programs that try to bring out-of-school
youth back in the right track. For example, a study by Martin and Halperin
(2006) showed 12 communities and the efforts made by people such as philanthropists, teachers, government workers,
and volunteer workers who attempt to help ‘out-of-school’ youth become
productive to society”. In the Philippines, Alternative Learning Systems (ALS)
have been administered by both the government and Non-Government Organizations,
such as La Salle Green Hills. For example, The government’s Pantawid Pamilyang
Pilipino Program, also known as the conditional cash transfer program, also
gives beneficiaries cash incentives for keeping their children in school.
Another program by the government is the “Abot-Alam” program which is “a
convergence program involving national government agencies under the Human
Development and Poverty Reduction Cluster of the Cabinet, aimed at mapping
out-of-school youth and matching them with appropriate government,
private-sector, or civil-society programs that will give them opportunities for
education, employment and entrepreneurship. La Salle Green Hills has the Adult
Night High School (ANHS) where free education is given to marginalized adults
16 years old and above.
Overall, this is an issue that
if left unresolved, will impact the whole Philippines. In 2013, a UNESCO report
showed that the Philippines lost 0.18 of its GDP because of out-of-school
youths. Out-of-school youths not only hinder the economy due to creating
unproductive members of society, but also impact society as well, and can cause
poverty and crime due to the lack of options.
considerable amount of literature has been published on ‘Out-of-school’ youth.
The studies tackled its causes and effects, to possible solutions. The
following studies will be used as reference for this study.
primary basis of our study is the study of Pattra Vayachuta; Ratana-Ubol,
Archanya; Weerachat Soopanyo. According to Vayachuta, et.al. (2016), Thailand
is the fifth in the number of out-of-school youth children in Asia, and second
in ASEAN. Now, the number totals to about 1.7 million people. This paper
explores the method of education provided to them by related organizations and
networks, and finds that their problems include low quality of life, lack of
life skills and social skills, and behavior problems, and the causes are
poverty, low achievement in school, and behavior issues which cause dismissal
from school. Other studies talks about programs for the youth and the benefits
it brings. According to Sullivan (2014), A large number of American youth in
the communities of the United States participate in out-of-school time and
programs, which bring a lot of benefits that school cannot bring. Moroney
(2011) found that Out-of-school youth programs bring positive developments, and
support their social, emotional, and academic development. Similar programs to
guide the youth, both in school and out of school are also present in the
Philippines. Geronimo (2017) wrote that Most learners are unaware of
Alternative Learning Systems: people only know about it through learning
facilitators who go to communities. Because of this, the DepEd wants to double
the number of volunteers and students of the ALS.
not all ‘out-of-school’ youth face the same problems or have the same reasons
for dropping out, studies have determined the most common ones. Jones (2005)
stated that In New York City, African American and Hispanic youth are twice as
likely as Asians to be out of school and unemployed. 170,000 of New York’s
young people aged 16 to 24 are unemployed or uneducated. The number of young
men that are “disconnected” are rising, while the number of young women who are
disconnected are decreasing. Supporting this, Thomas (2011) stated that
Many young people fail to or have difficulty finding a job. The paper
identifies factors that assist the out-of-school youth go back to school or
find a job. In addition, Cassidy (2005) discovered that The social, emotional,
and academic development of the youth depend on the environment they grow up
in, including schools. Lastly, Jeffrey (2010) found that globalization
has brought unemployment among educated young men. The article studies the life
of unemployed young men in Meerut, an Indian city.
the Philippine context, the Philippine Statistics authority held a survey about
‘out-of-school’ youth. . Out-of-school have their own culture, and desire for
equality in the way others view them.
A survey by the Philippines Statistics Authority last 2013, the Functional Literacy, Education and Mass Media Survey
(FLEMMS), included 36 million population of children aged 6-24 years.
The survey found that one in ten or about 4 million filipino children were
out-of-school youth in 2013. A study conducted by Albert, et.al. (2012)
discussed the profile of out-of-school youth in the Philippines. A
description of out-of-school youth. Unfortunately, the alternatives for
‘out-of-school’ youth in the Philippines aren’t working well. Geronimo (2017)
stated that Most learners are unaware of Alternative Learning Systems: people
only know about it through learning facilitators who go to communities. Because
of this, the DepEd wants to double the number of volunteers and students of the
several studies have identified the causes and effects, possible
solutions, and different contexts of ‘out-of-school’ youth. However, there has
been little studies on the effectiveness and public perception of problems for
‘out-of-school’ youth. Specifically, the lack of knowledge or negative opinion
about Alternative Learning Systems or other programs for ‘Out-of-School’ youth.
This study aims to tackle this topic and apply the findings through a seminar
for the ‘out-of-school’ youth for Barangay Hulo.
primary research problem this study will be tackling is ‘out-of-school’ youth,
and more specifically, the lack of knowledge or negative perception about the
alternatives ‘out-of-school’ youth can take. There are many programs for
‘out-of-school’ youth to improve their situation, such as the Alternative
Learning System by DepEd, or the Adult Night High School by La Salle. However,
there are only a few enrollees to these programs despite the demand for it.
This study, and the capstone project that will follow it, will aim to solve
this problem by teaching the ‘out-of-school’ youth of barangay Hulo about the
alternatives they can take, specifically Alternative Learning Systems.
The project that
will be made using this study is a seminar teaching ‘out-of-school’ youth of
Barangay Hulo, Mandaluyong the alternatives they can take. These include the
Alternative Learning System, the Adult Night Highschool, sponsorship from
organizations, internship for companies, and more. The project aims to tackle
the problem of the lack of knowledge or negative opinion of alternative
learning systems, specifically by educating them about it.
The study will use a focus group
discussion for data. This type of data gathering was chosen since it is more
effective when interviewing a group of people or a specific demographic. It
also provides spontaneous answers and one person’s answer may encourage others
to speak up. The focus of the focus group discussion are the ‘out-of-school’
youth of Barangay Hulo, Mandaluyong, their feelings, and their knowledge about
alternatives to school. This focus group discussion will be conducted in
Barangay Hulo. This focus group discussion is important because it will serve
as our data for the study, and will provide information for the seminar. After
the focus group discussion, a seminar will be held in Barangay Hulo teaching
‘out-of-school’ youth about the alternatives they can take, specifically
Alternative Learning Systems, with the aim of educating them about Alternative
Learning Systems and clearing misconceptions about it, hopefully leading to