TheCentral Dogma theory turns DNA into RNA which then makes protein. Central dogmacreates structure for genetic information to be coded and synthesized. Thisprocess transfers genetic information through DNA to protein in a cell, which createsa gene expression. The central dogma theory uses a process that translates andtranscripts information. In eukaryotic cells, this process takes place in thenuclear membrane but, prokaryotic cells use their entire body to complete thisprocess. The Central dogma allows genetic information to undergo two stages inorder to produce protein. In a cell, DNA is transcribed in order to produce RNA.
Deoxyribonucleicacid also known as DNA goes through replication in order to replicate thedouble stand of genetic instructions. DNA is composed of four nucleotides;which are Adenine, Cytosine, Thymine, and Guanine. The nucleotides carryinstruction on how to make protein. Transcription begins when many factors bindto the DNA strand to prepare the DNA for RNA transcription.
The body createsRNA, which then attach to the DNA templet using RNA polymerase. The RNAsynthesizes the DNA nucleotide with RNA nucleotide to create messenger RNA(mRNA). The four nucleotides for mRNA are Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, andUracil. Once the RNA polymerase gets to the end of gene the RNA transcript iscomplete and the polymerase leaves the DNA strand. RNA is then spliced tocreate an advanced RNA strand. RNA then leaves the nucleus and moves toward thecytoplasm. The instructions from the DNA is copied in the RNA and issynthesized to move into translation. The process of translation allows RNA to be interpretedto create proteins.
RNA enters the cytoplasm and the bases are grouped inthrees called codons. The codons have a start codon and a stop codon. Thecodons each have a genetic code that is used for certain amino acids, whichproduce protein. Once the small ribosomal subunit binds to the codon thetransfer RNA tRNA bring the anticodon to connect with the codon. After theanticodon and codon are connected the large ribosomal subunit binds to thefirst codon in order to complete translation complex. Then, another ribosomalsubunit binds to the second codon and a peptide bind joins between the whoribosomal subunits.
This repeats until the subunit meets the stop codon. Thepeptide bond becomes a peptide chain is released from the subunit, whileleaving the ribosomes as amino acids. This is how the protein amino acids arecreated through the process of transcription of RNA. In conclusion, the central dogma codes geneticinformation from DNA to RNA to Proteins. The process goes through these twostages in order to insure correct formation of proteins. Although, centraldogma starts in the nucleus it makes it way out exploring the eukaryotic cells.
Transcription and translating is the genetic information taken from the DNAstrands, and making the information into protein. The central dogma completesits processes and allows the gene information to be expressed through geneexpression. Therefor the central dogma is the vital process of proteinsynthesis.