The modern-day political history of Iran can be seen as a continuous fight for independence and political development at different stages.
The Green Movement, also known as The Persian Awakening, began as mass protests erupted in Iran against the “selection” and victory of Mahmoud Ahmadinejad for the second term in office, in the most contested presidential election of Iran after the 1979 revolution. Iranians were united by a common interest and peacefully protested the outcome of the 2009 presidential elections by opposing the violation of their political and civil rights. People no longer accepted the undemocratic aspects of Iran’s political system of the last three decades and protested for civil rights, social freedom and a more transparent electoral system. They also wanted to wrest the presidency away from radical, right-wing, hard-liners.
The disputed presidential elections and harsh authoritarianism afterwards, sparked widespread and massive popular protests and finally metamorphosed into an escalation. Despite brutal and vicious treatments from the state apparatuses, the people still took to the streets, and street clashes, massive street demonstrations took place over eight months with little or no effect of repression. These were followed by a vast diffusion of online activism among protestors in 2010, and definitely led the repressive activities to the position of a tactical shift. The increase in the popular demand of Mousavi by the masses in 2011, precipitated to the house arrest of the Green movement leaders, and when the state increased the level of repression, the movement saw a substantial decline in tangible activities which was as a result of the absolute control caused by demobilization and deterrence.
But during the 2013 presidential election campaign, however, the movement reinvigorated by being active in support of a moderate candidate, Hassan Rouhani, despite the fact that there was still severe state repression, a repression taken to a tactical shift, that is, from movement politics to electoral politics.