The brain (Tomporowski et al., 2008). 2.7 Physical

The physical activity and learning relationship is connectedinto the circuity of brain. Sedentary lifestyles create a health tension tothis circuit (Ratey & Hagerman, 2008) and consequently affect learning andmemory in humans.

In addition, active lifestyle can prevent loss of cognitiveability due to aging or neurodegenerative illness or prolong their occurrence(van Praag, 2009). Besides, active lifestyle also affects and promotesindividual performance measures such as working memory, reasoning, vocabularyand reaction time compared with sedentary lifestyle (Yaffe, 2001).Based on previous study, student’s mental function andcognitive development can be improved by physical activity. Physical movementimpacts the brain to improve cognitive processes by increase blood circulationto carry out oxygen, stimulates production of neurotransmitters and nervegrowth factor that enhance mood improvement and generates new cells(neurogenesis) in the brain (Tomporowski et al., 2008). 2.7 Physical Activity Across Curriculum (PAAC) Physical activity across curriculum (PAAC) is generally takes the form ofshort breaks from academic instruction where some type of physical activityoccurs (Donnelly and Lambourne, 2011).

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PAAC promoted 90min/week ofmoderate to vigorous physically active academic lessons (3.0 to 6.0 METS, ~10min each) delivered intermittently throughout the school day. Lessons wereusually delivered in the classroom, but were also delivered in alternate schoolsites such as hallways and outdoors. PAAC lessons were used in a variety ofacademic areas including math, language arts, geography, history, spelling,science, and health (Donnelly et al.,2009).From a recent review of physical activityand academic achievement showed a positive association between PAAC andindicators of cognitive skills and attitudes, academic behaviour, and academicachievement (Kibbe et al., 2011).

Method of the physical activity program has been developed intothe classroom, while assessing the physical and mental repercussions. Moderateintensity of physical activity improved academic performance on a standardizedtest of academic achievement by 6% compared to a decrease of 1% for controlsgroup (Donnelly and Lambourne, 2011). Chomitz (2008) demonstrateda significant positive relationship between fitness and academic achievementwhich was assessed as a passing score on the Massachusetts ComprehensiveAssessment System (MCAS) achievement test in Mathematics and in English amongurban public school children.

Contrary to above finding, Trembley (2000)negative relationship with academic. Kimball (2009) found no changes.A successful program which is TAKE 10! program was developed by thenon-profit organization, International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) as acomponent of the Physical Activity and Nutrition (PAN) program. ILSI has workedsince 1996 to promote physical activity and to formulate practical solutionsthat impact obesity-related behaviours in children (Kibbe et al.

,2011).TAKE 10! was created in 1999 as a method of reducing sedentary behavioursduring the elementary school day and to increase daily activity levels andstructured minutes of PA in the classroom. The program integrates both PA andacademic learning as students engage in 10-minute physical activities whilespecific learning objectives in math, reading, language arts, science, socialstudies, and general health are all reinforced. “Contraction Action” is oneexample of a TAKE 10! activity that can be implemented into the second gradesetting. This activity incorporates both PA and academics as students sing andperform two-part muscle contraction movements to better understand how twowords becomes a contracted word. Variations of the TAKE 10! Program have beenintroduced and examined throughout the nation. Physical Activity Across the Curriculum (PAAC) has been applied andreviewed to evaluate changes in academic achievement for reading, writing,mathematics, and oral language skills.

The timespan of the study by Donnellyand colleagues (2009) followed participants from grades two and three to gradesfour and five. The PAAC program promoted 90 minutes per week of moderate tovigorous intensity physical activities that promoted academic lessons providedby the classroom teacher. The Wechsler Individual Achievement Test- 2nd Editionwas used to measure academic achievement. From baseline to year three,significant improvements were found in the academic areas of reading, math, andspelling for the intervention group (Joseph EDonnelly et al. 2009).Academic achievement, job performanceand health are several broad social outcomes that measure the intelligence (Colom et al.,2010). Research hasindicated that regular physical activity improves academic achievement inadults especially that can increase in moderate intensity exercise.

Acute bouts of moderately-intense aerobic exercise(i.e. walking) have improved the cognitive control of attention and academicperformance in pre-adolescent children age 9 to 10 years old after contributedwith moderate acute exercise e (Hillman et al., 2009). Academic performance among preadolescent childrenwere assess using Wide Range Achievement Test 3rd edition (WRAT3; Wide Range,Inc.

, Wilmington, DE, USA) in the content areas of reading (i.e. the number ofwords correctly pronounced aloud), spelling (i.e.

the number of words correctlyspelled), and arithmetic (i.e. the number of mathematical problems correctlysolved). It is showed that academic achievement increased but there were loweffect on spelling and arithmetic (Hillman et al.

, 2009).