The islanding effect works firstly by restricting movementin a triad of stages. Firstly, in the case of Haiti, travel out of the islandis restricted during evacuation for safety purposes, travel was restricted afterthe disaster has occurred and travel is often restricted if the disaster can bepredicted.
In the case of the Haiti earthquake there was little distresswarning given and additionally there was no time to evacuate when the disasterearthquake struck and therefore people become trapped. According to Sheller(2012) the islanding effect is down to unequal access to mobility and this canbe linked to the theme of marginalisation. Consequently, this unequal access tomobility resulted in the Haitians becoming confined and trapped on their own island(Sheller, 2012).
Moreover, in the case of the Haiti earthquake the disasterlogistic tragically produced uneven mobilities, for example outside foreign aidworkers held the ability to bring in supplies and they could come and go withfree will, whereas the poverty-stricken locals faced decreased mobility(Sheller, 2012). The people that generally escaped the island where UnitedStates citizens of a Haitian origin, or the affluent citizens of Haiti(Sheller, 2012). Therefore, the people trapped after the disaster and unable toflee where the marginalised poorer citizens of Haiti, with some people havingno passports, or money to travel.
In a like manner, the theme of marginalisationof the poorer social groups is not just aligned to the Haiti earthquake.Marginalisation of the poorer social groups is a common theme throughout manydisasters and to give another example this can be seen in the disaster ofHurricane Katrina. The evacuation plans for Hurricane Katrina relied onautomobility as Sheller (2012, p188) states “…evacuation plans relied onsystems of automobility…” Therefore, again the theme of marginalisation of thepoor can be seen because those who cannot afford their own transport are notcovered in the evacuation plan. Brooks (2005, as cited in Squires and Hartman,2006) argues that Hurricane Katrina was mislabelled as a natural disaster andrather it was a social disaster. Then, with this argument in mind it can beconcluded that both the Haiti earthquake and Hurricane Katrina are humaninduced disasters rather than natural because if it was not for themarginalisation of the poor then there would not have been such a high deathtoll and destruction rate.
Therefore, with this second argument in mind we canindeed say that there is no such thing as a natural disaster.