The Political System in Tibet TodayThe Chinese Communist Party, with the active support of themilitary, strictly governs Tibet.
The Party rules through branch offices ineach province, autonomous region and autonomous prefecture. Subordinate to theParty is the government, which carries out policies designed by the Party.China has established the full panoply of Party and government offices toadminister Tibet as exists in China.
In Lhasa alone, there are over 60departments and committees almost all of which are directly connected to theirnational offices in Beijing. Thus, Tibet is “autonomous” in word only; in fact,the Tibet Autonomous Region has less autonomy than Chinese provinces. The topT.A.R. post, the Party Secretary, has never been held by a Tibetan.China maintains an occupation army in Tibet of at least aquarter million strong.
Military and police are often overwhelmingly present inLhasa and elsewhere, though as of February 1992, security in Lhasa is dominatedby undercover and plainclothes police. The military plays a greater role in theadministration of Tibet than any Chinese province, and no Tibetan serves in theleadership of the military district governing Tibet.Even though the Party still controls Tibet, its control isbeginning to slip. There is a pervasive disillusionment with, and contempt for,the Communist Party and the government in Tibet that can even are found amongParty members and government functionaries. Inefficiency and corruption haveconsumed some government operations to the extent that they barely function andare an enormous waste of government funds. During ICT’s one-month tour ofeastern Tibet, it became apparent that the Party’s goals have been drasticallyreduced from its once grandiose plans of social, human and economictransformation to simply holding onto power, taking care of Chinese settlersand extracting Tibet’s natural resources.
The Party now seems to have little left to offer Tibetansother than the repression, which keeps Tibetans from mass rebellion. Nobody inTibet is talking about how the Party can reform itself, for it has becomesomething that most Tibetans must just tolerate and avoid. Some Tibetans usethe Party for their own personal and professional advancement and try toimprove conditions for Tibetans from within the system. The late Panchen Lamasucceeded in wresting enough power from the system to improve conditions in anumber of areas. The Panchen Lama was the only Tibetan who the Chinese feared,unlike current Tibetan leaders such as Ngawang Ngapo Jigme, Mao Rubai and Raidiwho have little power.
Recent reports from Lhasa indicate increasing alienationand disaffection among middle and lower level Tibetan bureaucrats and acorresponding loss of trust in them by their Chinese superiors.India has provided settlement facilities to many Tibetanrefugees after the Dalai Lama and his followers seek asylum in India. Tibetanin India are called Political refugee. Karnataka has 3 settlements forTibetans in Kollegal, Mundgod and Byllakuppe.
Bangalore is the capital of Karnataka and the Silicon Valleyof India. It has great job potential and a good consumer base1.It is obvious that Tibetans from the 3 settlements and other places would cometo Bangalore for higher studies and for seeking business and employmentopportunities.
IT sector is the one profession which give employmentopportunity to Tibetan especially youth.Information Technology (IT) is a new technologyapplied to the creation, storage, selection, transformation and distribution ofinformation of many kinds. IT, as defined by the Information TechnologyAssociation of America (ITAA), is “the study, design, development,implementation, support or management of computer-based information systems,particularly software applications and computer hardware.” It deals withthe use of electronic computers and computer software to convert, store,protect, process, transmit and retrieve information, securely. The BritishDepartment of Industry considers IT as science of information handling, particularlyby computers, used to support the communication of knowledge in technical,economical and social fields. It defines IT as, “The acquisition, processing,storage and dissemination of vocal, pictorial, textual and numericalinformation by microelectronics based combination of computing andtelecommunication”.
2Indiais the world’s largest sourcing destination for the information technology (IT)industry. The industry employs about 10 million workforces. More importantly,the industry has led the economic transformation of the country and altered theperception of India in the global economy. India’s cost competitiveness inproviding IT services, which is approximately 3-4 times cheaper than the US,continues to be the mainstay of its Unique Selling Proposition (USP) in theglobal sourcing market. However, India is also gaining prominence in terms ofintellectual capital with several global IT firms setting up their innovationcenters in India.
TheIT industry has also created significant demand in the Indian education sector,especially for engineering and computer science. The Indian IT and ITeSindustry is divided into four major segments – IT services, Business ProcessManagement (BPM), software products and engineering services, and hardware.3 HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Information Technology as a technical support for humanthinking and communication has been evolving over thousand of years. Newdevelopments have been rapid over the last few decades. It is only recentlythat the term has been used as a collection term for the whole spectrum oftechnologies providing the ways and means to acquire, store, transmit, retrieveand process information. According to Manfred Kochen, any technology developsin three stages ìIn the first stage, technology enables us to do things, thatwe have been doing, but to do them better, cheaper and faster. In the secondstage, technology provides new capabilities and enables us to do things that wehad not been able to do previously. And in the third stage, technology becomesan integral part of our activities; it affects the way we do things and changesour life style.
Development in computer and communication technology hasbrought a new dimension to the program of information handling. The introductionof microprocessor and microcomputers has made thing easier. All thesedevelopments facilitate better and quicker services to the user.4ITis integral to process execution and management in BPO. BPO stands for’Business Process outsourcing’ which is the process through which one companyhands over part of its work to another company, making it responsible for thedesign and implementation of the business process under strict guidelinesregarding requirements and specifications from the outsourcing company. Thephilosophy behind BPO is specific “Do what you do best and leave everythingelse to business process outsourcers”.
COMPONENTSOF BPO Ina world where IT has become the backbone of businesses worldwide, outsourcingis the process through which one company hands over part of its work to anothercompany, making it responsible for the design and implementation of thebusiness process under strict guidelines regarding requirements andspecifications from the outsourcing company. This process is beneficial to boththe outsourcing company and the service provider, as it enables the outsourcerto reduce costs and increase quality in non core areas of business and utilizehis expertise and competencies to the maximum. Outsourcingis made up of two words – ‘out’ and ‘sourcing’. Sourcing refers to the act oftransferring work, responsibilities and decision rights to someone else. Itwill be futile for a manager to expel efforts booking a business trip, as itinvolves intricacies such as finding flights, booking hotel rooms, reserving arental car that, need not be remunerated at the manager’s salary. Theorganization will run at a loss by having a manager conduct the administrativetask rather than sourcing it to an individual who is costing the organizationless in terms of salary. Hence costs, both real (the salary) and opportunity(the time, attention and effort), are important determinants in the sourcingdecision. No organization is self-sufficient, nor does any organization haveunlimited resources.
Organizations must source work that can be conducted byothers at lower cost and with greater effectiveness or it will waste valuableresources in the pursuit of capabilities that can be readily purchased fromothers. Sourcing is normally conducted with an external party which is externalto the unit conducting the sourcing, hence the word ‘out’. An organization canoutsource work to another organization or person who is external to it.Sourcing, as discussed above, is the act of transferring work from one entityto another. Outsourcing is the act of transferring the work to an externalparty. Organizationsare continuously faced with the decision of whether to expend resources tocreate an asset, resource, product or service internally or to buy it from anexternal party. If the organization chooses to buy, it is engaging inoutsourcing. An outsourcing initiative calls for the transfer of factors ofproduction, the resources used to perform the work and the decision rights.
Theorganization transferring these is referred to as the client, the organizationthat conducts the work and makes decisions is the vendor, and the scope of thework is captured in a project. TheMajor Components: Thesimple business process outsourcing model consists of 3 components as: The client The vendor The project The client: A client is the person or organization that would like tooutsource a given project. Normally, this entity is thinking about utilizingoutsourcing as a strategic tool.
A client can be an entire organization or aunit within an organization. If the project being outsourced is the entire ITdepartment of the organization, we can say that the organization is the client.However, if we are only outsourcing the payroll functionality of the humanresource department, the client is the human resource department, thoughindirectly the entire organization is also the client. TheVendor: The vendor isthe service provider who will take over and conduct the outsourced work.Vendors come in many shapes and sizes. For instance, a vendor can be anexternal organization, which is most often the case. However, a vendor can alsobe a subsidiary of the organization.
For instance, Dell Computers has openedoperations in places like Brazil, where they own the outfits. Dell routinelysends software work to these locations because of the availability of a skilledworkforce and cost savings. Hence, Dell is engaging in what might be called’wholly-owned outsourcing’ by outsourcing work to subsidiaries that it owns. Vendorscan be differentiated based on where they are located. Some vendors are locatedonshore or in the same area as the client. Others are located near-shore, as inthe case of potential Canadian companies for US clients.
Finally, vendors canbe offshore, as in the case of Indian companies for British clients. The Project: The third component is the actual workbeing outsourced. In the past, the most common form of such work wasmanufacturing or labour-intensive projects. Today, however, there is movetowards the outsourcing of more complex forms of work, such as softwaredevelopment or Research and Development.5 BPOs(Business Process Outsourcing) are typically categorized into back officeoutsourcing or non-voice sector and front office outsourcing or voice basedsector. The non-voice process includes data encoding, database development,market research, handling of credit billing problems, loan processing, accountmanagement etc.
The voice sector is often interchangeably referred to as the’Call Centre industry’, ‘contact centre industry’ or ‘customer serviceindustry’ because the service entails interactive communication with the clientor customers. The Call Centers are an important part of the BPO. The CallCenters are an important part of the BPO. In recent years, the importance ofCall Centers has increased exponentially in the customer care industry.
A call center is central location where allcustomer telephone calls of an organization are directed, where trainedprofessionals handle the customer calls and provide answers to their queries.The Call Centre employees handle two types of calls – outbound and inboundcalls. The inbound calls are originating from the company’s client andcustomers, who in phone or email voice their queries, complaints or otherrelated customer concerns. The outbound Call Centre on the other hand are thoseoriginating from the Call Centre, which has been contracted by the company tosell or promote certain products and services.
There are also blended callhandling, meaning taking inbound calls while also making outbound calls. THEBACKGROUND AND HISTORY OF CALL CENTERS Thecall center concept was first used by some organizations as an internaldepartment to handle customer queries like airline reservation centers andbanks. Over a period of time the call centers were also used to lodgecomplaints, provide helpline services and today it is used mostly for sales andmarketing activities. Since1990’s the call volumes have grown exponentially and only with the use ofsophisticated call center equipments and technology can such voluminous callsbe handled by call centers.
During the 1970’s and 1980’s these equipments,mostly telecom hardware and computers were prohibitively expensive for smallercall centers, hence only large MNC’s could afford to put up their own callcenters. During the early 1990’s, these equipments have become very affordableto even smaller organizations due to the boom in telecom and IT infrastructuresector globally. This opened up avenues in the areas of outsourcing of thesecall centers by MNC’s to third party. Thenext wave of outsourcing of call center jobs came during late 1990’s and early2000, when these MNC organizations began looking at cheaper destinations indeveloping economy like India, South Africa and Far East for setting up theircall centers. This gave rise to the Global Call Center Outsourcing Industry. Asunrise industry, which promised jobs to millions of educated unemployed youthin developing countries and millions of dollars as savings to MNC organizationsin the developed nations. HISTORY OF CALL-CENTER IN INDIACall center is a rapidgrowth trend set in the Indian economy since 1990, due to the LPG(Liberalization – Privatization – Globalization) policies of the IndianGovernment to attract foreign investments in all sectors of the Indian economy.Most of the big Fortune 500 organizations have set up their own BPO’s in Indiathrough their subsidiary organization for outsourcing back office work.
Thiswas evident by General Electric’s strategy to setup its call center in Gurgaonnear Delhi during 1995. Other organizations like Swissair, British Airways, etcfollowed suit in the coming years. Post 2000 saw hordes of Indian organizationsbandwagon the BPO space.
This was partly due to the US outsourcing deals andpartly due to the initiatives of Venture Capitalist encouraging youngentrepreneurs in this space. This was evident in the success of young bredorganizations like Spectra mind. 6After referring all the references above, researcherunderstood the problems faced by BPO employee and thus researcher wanted to dothis research to study and understand the problems faced by Tibetan youthworking in IT sector (BPO) such as social, psychological and physical healthproblems. There are huge numbers ofTibetan youth in Bangalore who seek profession in this sector which helpfinancial. 1 http://tibetoffice.org/tibet-info/invasion-after2http://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/bitstream/10603/3814/14/14_chapter%204.pdf3https://www.ibef.org/industry/information-technology-india.aspx4http://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/bitstream/10603/3814/14/14_chapter%204.pdf5 http://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/bitstream/10603/6058/13/13_chapter%202.pdf6 http://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/bitstream/10603/5435/7/07_chapter%202.pdf