The third question is whether thevalue of reward that an individual will receive with increase in performancewill meet an individual expectation, and the expected satisfaction is labeledas valence. For instance, if an individual value something in his/her life The secondquestion is whether the high performance will lead to desired outcomes orrewards. Instrumentality is labeled for this perception. For instance, if you think that you will getnice job with good salary by getting good marks in exam than you will put moreforth effort.
Accordingto Porter, L.W., &W Lawler, E.E as cited in (Theories of Motivation, 2016),”expectancy theory is individual motivation to put forth more or less effort isdetermined by a rational calculation in which individuals evaluate theirsituation. According to this theorypeople ask themselves three questions, the first one is whether the highdedication or effort results in greater performance and success.
Expectancy islabeled for this perception. For instance, you will put more effort if youthink that your effort increases your performance in work. The theoryof motivation was started by Abraham Maslow in 1943, when he published his bookand stated that the people are motivated according to their hierarchy of needs,and those hierarchy were Physiological, Safety, Social, Esteem andSelf-Actualization (Maslow, 1943). According to Maslow, the basic need ofpeople is Physiological needs where people want food, water, proper sleep andfreedom in life. At this stage people are motivated with basic needs until theyhave enough of this and it will no longer motivate them. After Psychologicalneed, there comes Safety Needs, where people need to have certain level ofcomfort zone that makes them feel secure.
Once this security and psychologicalneed is satisfied, the next hierarchy of need is love and belonging needs whichis Social need. Social need is when the people give love and wants love inreturn. After the need to Social is fulfilled, then it hierarchy moves toEsteem needs where people are motivated when they are respected or when theyare self-confident. And at last Self-Actualization is to be at last point that a person is capable of.
This theoryof motivation is directly or indirectly linked with the productivity ofemployees, however, there are limitations on Maslow’s theory as the employermay not know at which level of hierarchy lies the employees and the hierarchymight not be same for everyone and it has been criticized that the level ofhierarchy is not same for everyone that starts from psychological need tosafety and so on but some people might need social need before safety need. In today’sglobalized world, people from different countries are working together in sameplace having different languages and cultures. This globalization in workforcehas caused both advantages and disadvantages in workplace because of diversityin people’s culture. To understand people, employees and groups working in aworkplace or organization, study of Organisational Behaviour provides you withthe knowledge of how people or and individuals acts in a workplace ororganisation. The productivity of an organisation depends upon the performanceof their employees and it is necessary for an organisation that they understandtheir employees properly and provide the necessary working conditions,motivation or rewards in order to increase productivity and efficiency in anorganisation.