The kidney is responsible for carrying out excretion to remove urea- the body’s waste product, salts and carbon dioxide from the blood, it regulates blood pressure and it helps to maintain the body’s water and mineral ion content(“Removal of waste and water control”). It maintains the water content through osmoregulation (Pickering 124). It also helps with producing red blood cells and keeping the other body fluids at a stable level through the urine output each day, to ensure normal levels of cell activity. The kidney filters out the body’s waste through thousands of tubes called nephrons, it receives sufficient blood flow through the renal artery and the urine gets carried away by a tube called the ureter(Pickering 124). Therefore, the kidney is a vital organ for the body to function properly. There are several causes for kidney failure. The main causes are diabetes and high blood pressure as they have been reported by over half the patients suffering from kidney failure in the US (Murphy, “Kidney Disease Statistics for the United States”), as shown in Figure 2 below. Then, its causes are also kidney trauma, damage to the nervous system and kidney stones as they stop the kidney from functioning and filtering waste normally (“Kidney Failure”). Finally, drugs, alcohol and anti inflammatory medicines(medicines that help reduce swelling and puffiness as a reaction to an injury) are causes as they cause kidney damage due to the buildup of subsatances and toxins in the blood, which eventually causes kidney failure. (“Kidney Failure”). Kidney failure also has a range of negative effects on the body. They include weakness, shortness of breath and excessive fatigue as part of the medical condition caused by kidney failure called anemia due to the lack of red blood cells (Wedro, Stoppler, “Kidney Failure- Symptoms, Causes and Treatments”). It can also cause abnormal heart beats which can result to sudden death, along with the swelling of the legs and ankles and a reduction in the amount of urine (Wedro, Stoppler, “Kidney Failure- Symptoms, Causes and Treatments”). This is because the kidney is not able to efficiently filter the toxic waste from the blood, and so, the toxins accumulate in the blood instead of being carried away by the urine.