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The Engines of Today and How They Have ChangedSmall Power EquipmentEthan GillelandDecember 7, 2017 AbstractSome of the ways that engines have changed in the years are the different parts of an engine and how they are cooled, the difference between two stroke and four stroke, what is the difference between the first modern steam engine (watt’s steam engine) and engines of today, the first production car (the ford model T), and the different fuels that engines use.Keywords: Engine, Two Stroke, Four Stroke, and Fuels. In the earlier years they used to cool their engines by air cooling. In the process of air cooling the main ideas that are used are Evaporation, Condensation, Compression, and Expansion. One of the parts that are used to accomplish the process of air cooling is the compressor.

The compressor is powered by a drive belt connected to the crankshaft of the engine. The compressor moves refrigerant vapour to the condenser under high pressure.Another part is the condenser is a device that creates liquid out of high-pressure refrigerant vapor. It is placed in the front of the car in front of the engine’s radiator. It looks like a radiator. The way that it works is the huge amount of heat condenses the high pressure that is driving into it which turns it into liquid.

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The next part is the receiver. The liquid moves to the receiver. This is a small reservoir vessel for the liquid, any refrigerant that leaked will also be removed by the reservoir. Mechanical damage, ice crystals blockages, and other problems can be caused by moisture in the system.In newer engines they have liquid cooling. The main parts that are used in a liquid cooled engine are a The Water Pump, The Radiator, The Thermostat, and The Engine. The serpentine belt or the timing belt or change is what runs the water pump.

You can put water or antifreeze in the cooling system. The radiator is is the next stop for the radiator, the antifreeze is moved from the water pump in the radiator. The radiator is a place where the antifreeze has a large amount of areas for the antifreeze to release its heat. The Thermostat is the next stop for the antifreeze. The thermostat is a control that decides if it needs to let the antifreeze through to the engine. The Engine is the last and final stop for the antifreeze. The antifreeze passes through the engine to cool down the engine so that it does not overheat.

One thing that has changed about engines over the years are the different types of engines. The two types of engines that we will see most in the small power equipment community are Two Stroke and Four Stroke.First off about Two Stroke is that they don’t have valves, makes it easier to produce and makes them not as heavy. Two Stroke engines also only fire once per revolution which gives them a greater power boost. They also can work in any orientation, unlike Four Stroke which means that Two Stroke engines could be turned sideways etc.

unlike Four Stroke which if tilted in the wrong way could starve the engine of oil and fuel. They can also be made very small, since Two Strokes are very simple they don’t have to have all of the extra room for all of the things that Four Strokes need.Now we have Four Strokes.

Four Strokes have more torque than a Two Stroke and a Two Stroke has more speed and power than the Four Stroke. Four Strokes will also last longer than Two Strokes because they use much less oil than the Two Stroke. The Two Stroke has to be at a high RPM for them to make any power, which they are worked harder so they will not be able to live as long as the Four Stroke. Four Strokes also run much cleaner than Two Strokes.

Two Strokes make a lot of smoke from the exhaust because not only does it burn gas it also burns oil because Two Strokes take a gas oil mix to run. Four Stroke engines are much less noisy than Two Strokes because they have to have much more room, and in all of that you have more space to loose all of the loud noises that travel through the engine. They also have less pollution because they are only burning gas unlike Two Strokes that burn gas and oil mixture. There was a steam engine called Watt’s steam engine. This is one of the most advanced steam engines of its time and it’s not so different from the types of engines we have today.The way that the steam engine works is they make a fire to produce some type of pressure. Then it will produce steam under high pressure and it pushes the steam through the tubes.

The tubes are push the steam down into the cylinder pushing the piston back and forth while the valve is letting steam in and out when needed. Then the pressure from the piston is moving the crank and connecting rod and moving the wheel which will move whatever the steam engine happens to me on.A combustion engine has the same type of pattern. First you have the intake stroke. “During the intake stroke the piston lowers in the cylinder, sucking the air into the cylinder through the intake valve while the fuel injectors simultaneously sprays fuel into the cylinder.” Then you have the compression stroke. “During the compression stroke the valves close, and the crankshaft moves the piston up, compression the air-fuel mixture.” After that is the combustion stroke also known as the power stroke.

“During the combustion/power stroke the piston reaches the top, the spark plug, igniting the fuel-air mixture.” The resulting combustion forces the piston to the bottom of the cylinder again. Then you have exhaust stroke which is the last stroke.

“During the exhaust stroke the piston reaches the bottom, the exhaust valve opens up. The piston comes back up, forcing the exhaust out of the cylinder.”In both engines you have the same four strokes the intake stroke, compression stroke, combustion/power stroke, and the exhaust stroke. All of these strokes combined will move the crankshaft which will move whatever vehicle or tool that the engine is connected too. Next we will talk about the Ford Model T also known as the Tin Lizzie. The Model T was Made by the Ford Motor Company from 1908 through 1927 advertized by Henry Ford as the affordable and most practical transportation for the common working man. The reason why it was able to be advertized as this is because of its durability, low cost, ease of maintenance, and versatility.

With the use of the production line the price of the Model T price lowered its price almost $600 dollars. The Model T offered several body styles, including a touring car with five seats, a two seat runabout, and a seven seat town car, the car was ran by a simple engine with all four cylinders cast in a single block and the head of the cylinder is detachable for easy access and repair. The Model T’s motor generated 20 hp and the top speeds of 40-45mph. Most of the models the motor was started by a hand crank in the front of the car next to the front bumper. After 1920 the new cars came with an electric start and transmission, consisting of two forward gears and one reverse.

The gas tank that was located under the front seat could hold up to 10-gallons. With the production of the assembly line Mr. Ford managed to reduce the time that it took to put the cars together in 1913 from 12 hours and 8 minutes to 1 hour and 33 minutes, when all of the other manufacturers were still hand making their cars but they were only for wealthy people. Henry Ford said “I will build a motorcar for the great multitude” and most people thought that he did exactly that. When the car first Model T’s that came out were available in green, red, blue, and grey. When they first came out they also did not come out with a starter, water pump, generator or any type of  electric lights everything on the car was plain or the bare minimum but people back then knew that as the normal.

In today’s time we have everything we could ever want on a car heated seats, a/c, auto drive, back up cameras. In the early 1806 Nicéphore Niépce ran a single cylinder riverboat engine with a mixture of coal dust and mos spores. One fuel that made a return appearance in an early series of experimental engines was coal dust. It showed up again in the 1970s when General Motors were looking for alternatives to Middle East oil. Although coal dust is better in energy, and there is a lot of it and it is cheap. There is one problem it is messy to work with and is extremely explosive and many miners died in that like of work. So they are trying to turn coal into a liquid form that way it is easier to handle.

“By the time Karl Benz rolled out his Motorwagen in 1886, gasoline was the preferred energy source, though there were those that preferred batteries. Unfortunately, the batteries of the late 19th and early 20th centuries were sorely lacking in both energy density and durability. The limited range and high cost of early electric vehicles such as the Lohner-Porsche and Detroit Electric prevented them from gaining mainstream acceptance. Despite advances in battery chemistry, that problem persists today.” The discovery of accessible crude petroleum in the late 1800s really threatened batteries as a automotive fuel source for the next 100 year. Liquid hydrocarbons had all of the wanted traits with the downsides being exhaust emissions.

Even though gasoline has been the dominant transport fuel. The new gasoline with new additives being a enhanced cold start and knock resistance. “The remarkable devices that did so much to clean up automotive emissions were fatally damaged by lead deposits on the catalyst. Since the mid-1970s, lead has been supplanted by a variety of the knock inhibitors, but most pump gasoline today is blended with up to 10 percent ethanol as an alternative.

” So for the most part not very much has changed in the fuel sources. ReferencesAbrams, S. (2017, October 05).

Vehicles have changed a lot. Their fuel? Not so much. Retrieved December 08, 2017, from http://www.roadandtrack.com/car-culture/a4445/the-road-ahead-fuel-evolution/Ford Model T. (2017, December 06). Retrieved December 08, 2017, from https://en.

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wikipedia.org/wiki/Watt_steam_engineTwo-stroke engine. (2017, November 07). Retrieved December 08, 2017, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Two-stroke_engineFour-stroke engine. (2017, December 07).

Retrieved December 08, 2017, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Four-stroke_engineAir-cooled engine. (2017, November 03). Retrieved December 08, 2017, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Air-cooled_engineInternal combustion engine cooling.

(2017, December 03). Retrieved December 08, 2017, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internal_combustion_engine_coolingStroke (engine). (2017, November 22).

Retrieved December 08, 2017, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stroke_(engine)A. (n.

d.). Retrieved December 08, 2017, from http://www.airconcars.com/html/how_it_works.html