The circulatory system is vital and anessential part of the human anatomy and physiology.
It provides and maintainshomeostasis to the whole life system of human body existent (cardio system helpmaintain homeostasis. EHow.media. 2010). Imagine a car engine with all itscomplexity and part, and we just focus on one main and essential part of the car system which makes it as acar we all know about and that is the engine or as we might alternatively callit the “heart of the vehicle” the piston inside the engine move as combustionoccurred as the result of mixing of air and fuel ignited by spark plug in thechamber and a small explosion in turn push the piston upward by force and thisresulted in the rotation and transferring of power to the crank shaft and thiscrank shaft, turn the car wheel so that the car be able to move and serve itpurpose as a transportation machine for human use. By this analogy we can seewhy it is called the “heart of the vehicle”, this mechanism and its ability toachieve its purpose are identical to the human heart and its system example theoxygen sensor that monitor the mixture of air and fuel in correlation to engineoutput, the oxygen sensor system existed to maintain power output and at thesame time to prevent damage to the engine which this oxygen sensor act the sameway as the baroreceptor located in the carotid sinus and the aortic arch whichresponded to the amount pressure change in the arterial wall in the humananatomy and physiology where if prolong high pressure can damage the arterialwall, and disrupt the circulation and ultimately endanger the heart, lungs,brain, kidney and nearly every part of the body (The Heart/ underpressure/www.patreon.com.
2015). The concepts are amazingly similar and it ismagnificently engineered and at the same time, it is fascinating to learn andbe able to understand such an existent and the purpose of its creation. Physical activity cannot be separatedfrom human life the cardiovascular system is relatively connected to thephysical activity. Fatigue is an appearance respond to the duration of physicalactivity and this implementation of physical activity is both directly andnaturally the body will respond to the quality and quantity of physicalactivity which is undertaken. Such a response is part of human body demand tomeet the nutritional need in an effort to compensate the physical activityprocess and at the same time to maintain the body condition in order to achieveequilibrium, it is also called the optimum physiological response ( Arthur C.Guyton, John E.
Hall.2017). The change in frequency of physical activity isbase upon the pre and post physical activity and this can be apparent dependingon the stat of the individual optimum physical condition. The physiologicalresponses are proportional to the physical activity and the responses aredifferent from one individual to another individual. The physiological responsewhich is observed and showed the difference which is due to the body conditionduring physical activity which the body are prepared by doing routine exerciseor body condition were trained or not trained. And within this essay, we willdiscuss the finding and present the reason for the difference between a trainedathletes and a non-trained or non-athlete in taekwondo base on its anatomy andphysiology of the cardiovascular system.
And A simple observation can be seen byjust the blood pressure and heart rate check of pre and post test from 2different people with a background of athlete and non-athlete. The heart rateand blood pressure are used to see the physiological response of the physicalactivity. It is also to be clear that the returned to normal physiologicalresponses are also showing the ability of the body fulfilling the optimumphysical condition. The reading of anuntrained person shows that blood pressure is pre-activity is 127/75 while158/62 (systole/diastole) for post activity and the time required for theuntrained person to restore or recover his blood pressure to normal value is 7minutes.
On the other hand, the trained person reading show that his bloodpressure is for the pre-activity is 119/63 (systole/diastole) and post activityshows the blood pressure of 141/68 and the time required for the trained personto restore or recovered his blood pressure to normal value is 4 minutes. As weall know that blood pressure is a pressure that existed when the heart contractand relaxed in a cycle and this is called as the systole and diastole pressure.Base on the statement above about the activity which is performed by thetrained and untrained person and there the physiological effect of the bloodpressure we can understand that there is a totally different on pressureexisted in both person. The heart as a pump has to pull out a stimulusrhythmically. Under the ordinary circumstance, the heart rhythm is from thepacemaker of the heart the sinoatrial node (SA node) located in the rightatrium. The SA node is responsible for the whole heart contraction function (itact like a car engine Spark Plug). And there are several factors which canaffect the rhythm of the SA node including the drop in pressure, stimulation ofincreasing temperature and other (Guyton and Hall, 2006).
The increases in blood pressure mainlythe systole pressure during the post activity is caused by the hormoneepinephrine during a physical activity. This causes the strengthening of theheart muscle contraction and also the effect of the blood vessels widening(dilation), but the dilation does depend widely upon the person condition. If aperson has arteriosclerosis the effect of epinephrine is limited on thedilation of the blood vessels, and the rises of blood pressure can occur. Also, the sweat that is produced is also aneffect on the blood plasma and this decreases the volume of blood and in turn,blood pressure does not rise too excessively. The trained person has lowerblood pressure are also related to a stronger heart muscle and valves which arefunctioning more effective due to his heart has been accustomed to physicalactivity in taekwondo.
His ability to returned to normal blood pressure quickercompared to the untrained person is because of the trained person blood vesselshas a more elastic vessel wall and thus a trained person has a higherelasticity blood vessels than an untrained person. The blood pressure in relation to theheartbeat is playing a vital role in physical activity and the readiness andthe condition of the body and the system of the person especially thecardiovascular system. We have to remember that all is related to maintaining abalance of haemostasis. As we all know the cardiac output is the sum of thestroke volume and heartbeat and from this equation, we acquire the total volumeof blood pump by the heart per minute.
And as we can see the number of heartbeats play an important role inproducing the total cardiac output. It can easily put as “physical activityincrease heart rate and increase stroke volume, and in turn, increase thecardiac output” (Fox.1993 Soekarman.1986 in Akmarawita.
2012). From what we canunderstand and from test result of blood pressure and heart rate during restingstage that we observe from two sample subject, AS1 and AS2 (which has anathletics lifestyle) both are senior taekwondo student and from two otherdifferent subject, NS1 and NS2 (no athletic lifestyle background) both whichare from non-physically active individual, where it is found that the seniortaekwondo student has a lower number of heartbeat compare to the non-physicallyactive person. The data show that AS1 register 60 heartbeat/min and AS2register 69 heartbeat/min while for NS1 register 82 beats/min and NS2 86beat/min. We can conclude from the result of the test subject of the 2 group ofpeople show that a physically active person has a lower heartbeat due to havinga difference in anatomical structure of the heart muscle and the explanationfor this is that these group of people has a more elastic and thicker musclestructure and this more effective heart structure which allows the heart torelax and give stronger contraction during each cardiac cycle, and this is madepossible due to that they have been trained to perform physical activityroutinely. That the reason why athlete of physically active person has a lowerheart rate for pre and post physical activity is due to the stronger and moreoptimize amount of blood that are able to be contracted from the ventricleduring it relaxing stage in the cardiac cycle and because of this stronger andmore effective amount of blood pump toward the lungs or the head and to therest of the body causes the baroreceptor to receive the amount of stretchwithin the carotid sinus and the aorta arch and this sends the signal to thecardio regulatory centre in medulla oblongata which in turn interpreted thedata it receives and gives the signal of parasympathetic input to thesinoatrial node (SA node) to lower the amount of heart beat.
So in short due tothe larger cardiac output of a physically active person that causes morestretch on the baroreceptor, and this causes the brain to increase theparasympathetic input and reduce the sympathetic input of the autonomic nervoussystem and causes the SA node to reduce the heartbeat and balance out thehomeostasis within the system. This is the reason why the athlete or physicallyactive person has a lower resting heartbeat (can even reach as low as 40beats/min) compare to normal or non-physically active person. The heart dedicatedly powered theentire circulatory system that enables the transportation of nutrient, oxygen,hormones, immune system and waste that really important to the survival of thebody to function and the heart has only one concern and that is maintainingpressure (The hearth/under pressure/patreon.com.2015) With a system that workin coordination with not just a single organ but with all the other organ likethe lung that responsible of the respiratory system to which another essentialpart that works in conjunction with the cardiovascular system that works in abulk flow and the autonomic nervous system which consist of sympathetic andparasympathetic respond that play vital role in everyday respond either inactive mode of condition example sport or a adrenaline rush situation to therelaxing and smooth and calm activity, for example, reading a book or justhaving a nice evening meal with your love one to the master gland that secreteshormone to other organ and while this response is slower compare to the fastrespond from the receptor or the autonomic nervous system are working togetherto maintain haemostasis of the body.
It is simply an amazing system and theunsung hero that often goes unnoticed considering all the difference in ascenario of physical activity in which the body needs in order to regulate andmaintain the blood pressure and blood flow, it is simply amazing and impressiveon how the cardiovascular system able to accomplish all of that without eventhe need to think about it.