The various sensory information meanwhile the occipital lobe

The brain is the most sophisticated organ
found within most species. Its ability to receive, interpret, and direct
sensory information of any kind truly makes it marvelous. Composed of the spinal
cord and the brain, the nervous system is the most essential system in the
bodies of most mammals. “Although the brain constitutes only 2% of the total
body weight, its metabolic demands are extremely high. It utilizes around 20 %
of the total oxygen and 20 % of the total glucose consumption” (Fblt.cz, 2018).
The most prominent feature of the brain, the cerebrum, is divided into two
hemispheres (right and left) as shown in Figure.1
that accounts for nearly 85% of the total brain mass (Windward.hawaii.edu,
2018). Such a significant part of the brain is responsible for carrying out
higher thought process which include language, learning, memory, and much more
(Icuf.org, 2018). As shown in Figure.1,
the cerebrum is completely engulfed with folds of tissue known as gyri. Grooves
found outlining the gyri are known as sulci and together they both increase the
surface area of the cerebrum allowing for more neurons which can be used for
various purposes in the brain (Bailey, 2018). Likewise, a fissure serves the
same role as a sulcus, however it is relatively deeper in depth and is used to
divide the four lobes; parietal lobe, frontal lobe, occipital lobe, and the temporal
lobe as seen in the cerebral cortex in Figure.2.
 This part of the brain consists of
nearly 90% of all the neurons found in the brain which suggests that most of
the transmission of neural signalling occurs here via synaptic transmission (Human-memory.net,
2018). Located at the front-most end of the cerebral cortex, the frontal lobe
is responsible for the decision-making process, problem solving, and all the
executive actions made by the body. Similarly, the parietal lobe is associated
with recognizing various sensory information meanwhile the occipital lobe is responsible
for distinguishing various colors and what one sees. However, the temporal
lobe’s main function is to perceive auditory information and is involved with
memory, speech, and emotions (ThoughtCo, 2018). As you move along the cerebrum
and proceed to go down, the cerebellum is seen (smaller version of a cerebrum)
as shown in Figure.1. The joint that
connects between the cerebrum and the cerebellum is known as the transverse
fissure, and once cut, separates the two regions as shown in Figure.3. The cerebellum’s job is to regulate
muscle movement and maintain constant balance within the body (Anon, 2018). When comparing the gyri
of the cerebellum and the cerebrum, one can easily tell that there are much
more gyri found in the cerebrum and that the gyri present in the cerebellum is
not as big as suggested by Figure.4. When
the brain is flipped and placed on its ventral side, the two prominent features,
the olfactory bulb and the optic chiasma can be shown in Figure.5. In most mammals, the olfactory bulbs are used to process
various smells present in an environment (Encyclopedia Britannica, 2018).
Unlike the olfactory bulbs which are used to process smell, the optic chiasma is
the location where the optic nerves cross; transmit image from your eyes to the
brain (Verywell, 2018). As you move along the brain and come near the spinal
cord, you come through the midbrain, pons, and medulla oblangata which are all part
of the brain stem as shown in Figure.6.
The medulla serves as a gateway connection between the spinal cord and the
cerebellum and maintains involuntary actions such as breathing, digesting, etc.
Likewise, the pons connects the medulla with the cerebellum followed with the
midbrain (Windward.hawaii.edu, 2018). Interestingly, the pons and the midbrain release
the neurotransmitters, Norepinephrine and Serotonin which are both considered stress
hormones which aid in sleep, temperature, appetite and neuroendocrine control (Hajjawi,
2018).