This paper examines
fertility incentives among Nigerian single and married women in respects to German
open borders to asylum seekers. The growing influx of people to the German
territorial space over the past few years due to policy changes in border opening
for people who have been displaced under the Article 3 of the European Convention
on Human Rights (ECHR) which states that “No one shall be subjected to torture,
inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment”. That is, a person can make a
claim for protection based directly on Article 3 of ECHR as any states are
prohibited from returning a person to a country where she/he may suffer a
violation of his/her rights under Article 3. The united union estimates over 60
million displaced persons all over the world especially in counties where human
rights have been violated due to political unrest (Echr-cedh, 1998).
In recent times of economic hardship; where
poverty and inequality have posited major challenges to the people in the third
world countries, there has been a great exodus of people from Africa across the
Atlantic to Europe. This have consequently led to loss of lives in the great
quest for survival resulting from hunger and deadly diseases that shorten human
life expectance to a minimum of 22 years (DHS, 2007). These set of people are
not refugees, but they are economic migrants.
However, asylum seeking,
migration, refugee have been matters of concern among the European countries;
they have become a growing demand to human needs and threats to human survival.
Recently, seeking asylum by displaced people who have become victims of
political crisis and economic hardship from bad governance have exposed woman
and children to become the first victims of such crises. This has led to
several debts from the UN on the issues of humanitarian aids and rights from
such conditions. Other pressure groups have championed the cause over time;
such as the Amnesty International, the Red Cross Society etc.
Sequel to the research
carried out from the interviews of Nigerian women who are seeking asylum in
Passau, the nature of their migration from their places of origin to rather
other places in diaspora was understood. Most of the women have been married
somewhere outside their places of origin and have also given birth to children.
This paper tends to reflect on the reason(s) of their movement from other
places in Europe where they have lived to Germany and the motive(s) behind
their choices to increase their fertility (have more children) on arrival to
DEFINITION OF KEY TERMS
person who has left his/her country of origin and formally applied for asylum
in another country, but whose application has not yet been concluded.” (Anon n.d.)
person who owing to a well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of
race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group or
political opinion, is outside the country of his nationality and is unable or,
owing to such fear, is unwilling to avail himself of the protection of that
country; or who not having a nationality and being outside the country of his
former habitual residence as a result of such events, is unable or, owing to
such fear, is unwilling to return to it”(Echr-cedh
“It is the ability for a woman to conceive a
child and give birth to her children. Fertility incentives are the state
benefit that is accrued to both mother and child in order to support the family
which aims at subsidizing the welfare of the family by providing cheap houses,
child support payment, and free education, mother welfare payments for stay
home mothers or temporary unemployed due to childbearing”(Anon n.d.).
The aim of this paper is to
examine the quick response by the women to fertility and its benefits on
arrival in Germany. This paper also seeks to understand the cause and the
reason for the migration patterns from their places of origin and choice of Germany
as a destination.
It is to assess the
relationship between female migrants’ social benefits on fertility and their
increased fertility desires for more children.