Throughout the history of biomedical research, animals have beenused continuously as a means of conducting experiments for the sole purpose ofunderstanding pathology, pharmacology, physiology, and anatomy. To this day,animal testing is a controversial topic as many people are against it andothers understand the reason why animal testing is done. Although I canunderstand why many people justify the reason why animals are used forbiomedical research and harmed, I am completely against animal testing as Ifeel that it is unnecessary.The first dated animal testing documented transpired in 300-200BC. Ancient civilizations used animals to test out medical procedures. The nextdated event occurred in the year 1242 when Ibn al- Nafis, an Arab physician,used animals to philosophize blood circulation and study how the human bloodcirculatory system works.
Scientific theories that proved to be advancements inscience occurred in the 1700s. Animals were of course used to prove this and theexperiments led to historic discoveries and information like how respirationworks as combustion and electricity. A well known testing occurred in the latenineteenth century. Louis Pasteur, a French biologist, dispensed anthrax (aserious illness caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis) to sheep as a meansto demonstrate how important vaccines are (Murnaghan “Animal TestingTimeline”).
A huge breakthrough occurred in 1922 when insulin was taken fromdogs to experiment on diabetes. It began to become a problem in the late 1800s.People began to take a stand against animal testing and later the Cruelty toAnimals Act was passed in 1876. For years after that, scientists as well asdoctors further pursued the use of animals in order to make discoveries andsuch. Animals were used to help cure tuberculosis, vaccinate against the poliovaccine, study of AIDS, and the treatment of depression and diabetes.My outlook on the whole thought and process on animal testing isthat it should not be allowed.
The main reason as to why I am against it isbecause it is simply inhumane. Animals that are used in experiments aredeprived from food and water, force fed, inflicted pain, wounds, and burns,forced inhalation, and subjected to prolonged periods of physical restraint (2017). Someanimals are incapacitated and forced to keep their eyelids open by clips formultiple days.
Scientists seem to think that animals are somewhat similar tohuman beings, but in reality, animals are poor test subjects. As Paul Furlong,a Professor of Clinical Neuroimaging at Aston University stated, “It’s veryhard to create an animal model that even equates closely to what we’re tryingto achieve in the human.” (2013). Another reason as to why I am against animaltesting is because they do not predict reliable and effective results in humanbeings so it is safe to say that animals are sometimes tortured andexperimented on for no authentic reason. Did you know that 94% of drugs thatwere successful in animal tests are not in human clinical trials? (2013). Anotherreason why I am against animal testing is because if humans are refrained frombeing experimented on, then what makes it okay for animals, who have no say init, to be used for such experiments? It is highly unfair how animals who haveno control over what happens to them and who have no moral judgement andcognitive ability as do humans to be used in such a manner in which they simplyhave no control over. I am also against animal testing because there has beennew discoveries and alternative testing methods that do not involve the use ofanimals, yet animals are still being used.
It has been proven that vitrotesting, the study of cell cultures, is way more effective that animal testingbecause unlike by torturing animal, human cells are actually used.A vast amount of people believe that animaltesting isn’t bad and that it is actually needed and useful in order to savelives by finding cures and treatments. There are cases that lead some people tobelieve that animal research has contributed to major advances in medical history.A reason why people are for animal testing is because they believe that animalsand humans are similar in some ways.
It is thought out that animals and humansare biologically similar as both have the same set of organs and descend fromcommon ancestors. According to the California Biomedical Research Association,mice share more than 98% of DNA with humans and chimpanzees share more than 99%(2014). People who support animal testing claim that it can actually benefitthe animal. How you may ask? Well, according to scientists, animal research hashelped develop vaccines for animals to fight off diseases.
Animal research hasalso been a contribution in saving endangered and extinct species. Majority ofthe vaccines used on humans are also used to help treat animals. People alsosupport animal testing because they know that animal research and testing isregulated, as there are laws that protect animals from mishandling. In order touse animals for research or to be tested on, they must first be approved byIACUC, an Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee. With that in mind,people in favor of animal testing feel that because animals first have to beapproved to be tested on, it is not that severe and that animals will not besubstandarly treated. Some people also support animal testing to be donebecause several biomedical and health organizations, as well as a good amountof biologists, support animal testing.
The Pew Research Center discovered thatin a poll of 3,748, 89% of scientists favored the use of animals for scientificresearch (Funk & Rainie 2015). Some people claim that it is okay to useanimals for research because we consume more everyday than the amount used forresearch.My response to people actually believing thatit is okay to mistreat animals in order to help human beings out is that thethought itself is unbelievable.
It is safe to say that billions and millions ofpeople agree with me, as there has been an abundant amount of protests againstthe use of animals for testing and experimenting purposes. I am glad that thereare laws as well as organizations that protect animals and their rights. It isevented that Jeremy Bentham, an English philosopher, was one of the first tospeak out on animal cruelty. In the year 1835, the Cruelty to Animals Act wascreated as a means to protect all animals from endangerment. In 1865, HenryBergh, a diplomat and activist for animal and human rights, created TheAmerican Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals or as people refer toit by, ASPCA. In 1925, the Animals Protection Act was created to protect allanimals. An important legislation was that created in 1966 and referred to asThe Animal Welfare Act. It was created to regulate the handling andtransportation of animals used for testing.
In 1985, The Improved Standards forLaboratory Animals Act was put into place. This Act was highly needed andimportant because it granted regulations for lab animals such as scientistsproviding an adequate amount of living space and making sure that scientistsgive in to the basic needs of animals such as being taken for walks. I wouldsay that the most heard of and influential organization is PETA, People for theEthical Treatment of Animals. It began in 1980 and to this day is the largestanimal rights organization in the world. There are many other organizations andprotests going on right now to support animal rights. There is even an ACTright now that is in the making of where the use of animals in testingcosmetics can or will be banned. If it goes through, I strongly believe thatHCA, or the Humane Cosmetics Act, will be successful.Millions of innocent animals are used andmistreated annually for research and testing.
Every single day animals arefighting for their life as they are tortured excessively, even right thissecond as we speak. The abuse that animals have to go through daily isinfuriating and unnecessary. Animal testing is not only unnecessary and cruel,but it also only wastes resources and lives. It is even proven that majority ofthe drugs that pass in animals ends up failing in humans.
Some experiments andresearch are not even as important as to make innocent animals’ pay forsomething that they simply do not have to. It is obvious to conclude thatanimals should not be abused and should be seen as what they are, animals, andnot just an experiment. Works Cited”AnimalTesting – ProCon.Org.” Should Animals Be Used for Scientific or CommercialTesting?, 2 Nov.
2017, animal-testing.procon.org/. “Welcome.
“Understanding Animal Research Homepage, 23 Jan. 2013, www.understandinganimalresearch.org.
uk/. “WhyAre Animals Necessary in Biomedical Research?” Ca-Biomed.org, 2014, www.ca-biomed.org/. Funk,Cary, and Lee Rainie. “Public and Scientists’ Views on Science and Society.” PewResearch Center Internet Science Tech RSS, 29 Jan.
2015, www.pewinternet.org/. HumaneSociety International, “As Home Office Statistics Show UK AnimalExperiments At Shocking 4.
11Million, HSI Calls on Government to Increase Spendon Non-Animal Replacement Techniques,” hsi.org, July 16, 2013 Murnaghan,Ian . “About animal testing.” Animal Testing Timeline, 5Dec. 2017, www.aboutanimaltesting.co.uk/animal-testing-timeline.html.