Tomlinson(1996) Inferred thatFurther and Higher Education Act (1992) support the Further EducationFunding Council (FEFC) to take regard of the requirements of students withdisabilities by providing additional funding to individual colleges. In thisway FEFC encourages students with disabilities to opt for higher educationalprograms. These initiatives require individual institutions to competitivelybid for money to fund provision for students with disabilities. Tinklinand Hall (1999) found that disabilities in highereducation depends on good understanding, mind-set and acquaintance about disabilityamong staff and students more than theinstitutional policies.Hadjikakou& Hartas, (2008 In recent years the number of studentswith disability are interested in attending higher education is increasing.Still then they have barriers in accessing and participating in highereducation courses.
Farmeret al. (2002) Pointed out that students with learningdifficulties in higher education should be taken care at three levels namely -personal, organizational/institutional and political/ideological. Personal interms of providing counseling services and making students with disabilities tounderstand the prospectus of the program, explaining the new teaching methodsand other necessaries related to the higher education. Organizational (HEI) interms of training the staff and modifying the physical environment. Finally,ideological in terms current political policies which changes from time totime, striving for equality and making them understand about the emergingopportunities and entitlement to education.
Lancasteret al. (2001) Listed few obstacles in recruiting studentswith disabilities in higher education such as diversity, lifestyle, nonfriendly to the surroundings and legal obligations. In his study, a number of Headsstated that they did not actively recruit students with disabilities althoughthey ”don’t turn them away when they are registered”. In certain subjects,such as engineering, it was said that, for safety reasons, students withdisabilities were being discouraged from registering, raising issues regardingequality of opportunity and participation of students with disability ineducation. Donato,2008. At times staff may exhibit, eitherimplicitly or explicitly, negative attitudes regarding students with a particulardisability. They intend to have a negative attitude towards student with a disabilityand vice versa – this affect the studies of student with a disability. Teacherswith positive attitude and flexible in teaching methods can handle students withdisability in a better way.
Perceived power differences can be improved throughthe development of a good rapport with students, having tolerance, good communicationskills, a flexible and concerned approach, an understanding of nature of differentdisabilities and the different needs of students.Dutta et al., (2009) In spite of changes in many Western countries’legislation and the development of programs for students with disabilities, inrecognition of the importance of higher education for individuals, families,and society at large, low enrolment and high first-year dropout have been foundand initiatives have been taken according to the difficulties faced by the studentswith disabilities. Below are the cases which the students with disabilitiesoften face it. Low enrolment and high dropout can be understood as the resultof inadequate accessibility of higher education institutions, lack of support,adverse social attitudes and social isolation, as well as low financialcapacity.Rimmerman & Araten-Bergman,(2005).
A public committee in Israel examined theimplementation of the Equal Rights for Persons with Disabilities Act, emphasizedthe crucial role of higher education in the inclusion of people withdisabilities into society and in employment. Israel’s National InsuranceInstitute allocated resources to making academic institutions accessible, aswell as granting individual students with disabilities scholarships and supportservices. The recent study was initiated to estimate the outcome of thesesocial and legal developments on the inclusion of students with disabilities inhigher education. The improvement in the research, for the students withdisabilities to participate in a wide range of student activities, in additionto conventional academic outcome.(Burgstahler & Cory, 2008) When Anti-discrimination legislation forstudents of disabilities was established and it pointed out the social barriersfaced by them in the day to day life. Anti-discriminatory legislative caveatsspecifies that society and educational institutions should take special care inserving the students of disabilities various requirements.Forlin,2007; Watson, Kearns, Grant & Cameron, 2000In general studentswith disability do not possess the context of multi- lingual, when it comes tohigher education and surveys suggest the importance of the major role played bythis area. The key point for the development of student disability is toidentify and understand the view and experience of disabled students,specifically in academic theory.
Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) shouldtake steps in understanding the obstacles of disabled students.Phukubjeand Ngoepe’s study (2016) Stated that studentswith disabilities were not fulfilled with a purpose-built library service unitwhich was established with international best practice. Only very littlematerial has been translated into accessible formats. Moreover, only onelibrarian was consigned to administer and run the entire library service forall the students with disabilities.
Hallet al., (2002)It is unenviable(difficult) to consider disabled students as a separate group, as they fallalong a continuum of learner differences and share similar challenges andobstacles that all normal students face in higher education. At times theobstacles faced by disabled students are more when compared to the normalstudents, but sometimes not. To avoid these issues, the main beneficiaries of disability legislationshould take necessary steps by providing well-prepared handouts, instructions given in writing as well as verbally,materials should be updated in online from time to time and different types of assessment forms.Hadjikakou& Hartas, (2008)Globally there is arise in the number of students with disabilities entering higher educationinstitutions which show the interest of disabled students. Equal opportunityand admission for disabled students are sponsored by higher educationinstitutions with the policies created for non-discrimination by the Legislation.
Riddellet al. (2005) Observed that UK highereducation system made changes in education system for disabled students whichattracted them for education. The changes were useful for both the staff andstudents, this paved a way for an increase in number of disabled students forUK higher education (Hopkins, 2011). Students with specific learningdifficulties (SpLD) such as dyslexia and dyspraxia shows more interest for UKhigher education in recent years.Gibilisco(2006)Illustrates thepersonal difficulties connected with studying disability in Higher educationalsettings. A collection of legislative and policy instruments have beenspecially developed to restore the difficulties connected with education forlearning disabled students.Ebersold and Evans 2003Anecological definition should be adopted that accepts disability as “a productof strengths and weaknesses of the individual and the environment in whichhe/she functions, and not due solely to his/her intrinsic characteristics.
Thusmany SWD can be successful if the learning conditions are supportive and meettheir particular needs.”Yorgan,(2006)Prospects of higherenrollment of students with disabilities have prompted academic institutes to introduceinnovative programs to meet these students needs. Special programs have beenopened for students with visual impairments, students with learningdisabilities, and students with psychiatric disabilities.Foremanet al., (2001)Western countrieslegislation has come out with many development programs in higher education forstudents with disabilities. But still then there is a low enrolment and highfirst-year drop out as been found.
This happens due to lack of moral support,social isolation, inadequateaccessibility of higher educational institutes and low financial capacity.Rao,(2004)Long with thesupporting factors, researches have inferred that faculty attitude towardsstudents with disabilities plays a vital role. Faculty should understand thepoint that disabled students are entirely different from one another (need,understanding power, knowledge etc). Entire success or failure of a disabledstudent depends on the teaching staff. Any negative attitude of the staff as avery bad effect on the student. . In a survey, 50% of students withdisabilities indicated that faculty members understood their needs, but only25% of faculty members were willing to change the material covered in theircourses to suit these students& learning needs.
Most (82%) of the studentsindicated that faculty members needed to learn more about disabilities. Madaus,(2011). Learning Disability(LD) is developmental disorder typically identified in childhood. Even thoughmany students with LD continue to show weakness in academic skills inadulthood. In recent decades students with learningdisabilities shows interest in enrolling in colleges and universities as postsecondaryinstitutions have developed a wide range of services to meet these students’needs.MatthewBrett(2008), Studies have defineddisability in different ways, hence there is no approved definition. Thesubject of disability has been widely debated by scholars both inside andoutside the discrete field of disability studies.
In the Preamble to the UnitedNations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, the lack of anagreed definition is evident as signatory nations, including Australia, agreeto “Recognizing that disability is an evolving concept”