Tourism plays a critical function in the economic development of a figure of states across the Earth. Known for its extravagant and breathtaking beauty throughout the universe, Kashmir has competently been described as ‘The Paradise on Earth ‘ . Kashmir is 2nd to no topographic point in the universe every bit far as its natural beauty and rich cultural heritage is concerned. Bubbling watercourse, exuberant green hayfields and lily-laden lakes- the valley of Kashmir is any tourer ‘s dream.
Alongside, Kashmir is flush in historical sites, alone handcraft and hand-crafted points. However, the geo-political position of Kashmir has become one of its greatest disability. The continual political uncertainness in general and the two decennary long armed struggle in peculiar has unexceptionally impacted every socio-economic activity in Kashmir. And touristry is a sector that has unimpeachably been the worst casualty of this continued political instability and societal turbulency.
Not merely touristry but the allied sectors particularly the Kashmiri art and trade have every bit been hit. The present paper efforts to through empirical observation analyze the economic impact of armed struggle on Kashmir touristry and the attendant alteration in the socio-economic profile of the people of Kashmir. The paper besides puts Forth the suggestions and recommendations aimed at optimally working the potency of Kashmir touristry in the fast up socio-political scenario.Keywords: Geo-political, Socio-economic, Armed Conflict
Set like a glittering diamond, Kashmir is a multi-faceted tourer finish. Changing its chromaticities with every season – it ‘s ever abundantly beautiful. Blessed with snow capped mountains, honey-dewed groves, ruffling lakes and glorious bluish skies- The Mughals competently called Kashmir ‘ A Paradise on Earth ‘ .
Pre 1989, Kashmir was a Paradise in the true sense. The ongoing armed struggle ramping since the past two decennaries has hit hard the touristry sector doing the loss of tourer appetency for this peculiar finish. By 1991 there was a practical shut down in the local economic system, which led to hard-pressed consequence on the whole State & A ; reached every family. Tourism, which was the chief stay in the economic system of J & A ; K, was profoundly affected by assorted fortunes created out of the unsettled environment.Kashmir became a hazardous topographic point for tourers. Kashmir and terrorist act became synonymous. Tourism and its related sectors were battered doing non merely the creative activity of a negative Kashmir image but besides loss of support to those dependent on it.
The basic aims of the survey are as follows:1. To measure the impact of convulsion and perturbation on the growing of touristry and related sectors in Kashmir.2. To place the major jobs faced by touristry sector since the province became struggle habituated.3. To suggest executable suggestions for sustainable development of touristry in the province.
In the present survey secondary information has been used. Secondary information has been collected from assorted interim and one-year studies presented to The Ministry of Tourism. In add-on to this, information has besides been collected from assorted diaries, articles, newspaper archives. The research is besides based on the referred beginnings – published, unpublished and electronic.
Impact of Armed Conflict
Armed rebellion had a multi-dimensional consequence on touristry and its related sectors. Traveling by the statistics it can clearly be understood how hard the struggle affected touristry. Tourist reaching was a singular 7.5 hundred thousand in 1987 but saw a drastic dip in 1991 where it reduced to mere 6287.
Table 1: Year Wise Number of Tourists Who Visited the Valley From 1975.[ 1 ]
Year wise figure of tourers who visited the vale
802680262019945009314981421199532281988520221996375959299672319977027911116131241998996361024710988325199920016217130217292262000104337757511191227200166732585972591282002 upto 31st Jan307147254
Table 2: Year Wise Number of Tourists Who Visited the Valley From 2002[ 2 ]
Year wise figure of tourers who visited the vale
20029008200319116420047770002005993382200620009200724576200822000200920809201024376Although the inflow of tourers has registered an betterment after 1890ss nevertheless it is deserving observing that the figures have come nowhere near to tourer records in pre-militancy period.
Tourist musca volitanss were wholly or partly encroached by ground forces cantonments and lookouts. Frolicing kept the local sightseers off from sing assorted tourer finishs esp. widespread 1s. Collateral harm affected legion cultural and religious edifices. Around 180 historical constructions were gutted during combativeness in the province. Charar-e-sharief is one such illustration.
In assorted combativeness related incidents tourers were besides targeted. Many historical sites were occupied by Indian forces including the universe celebrated Mughal Inns. Such topographic points evidently remained off bounds of tourers.In 1987, the last large season before the force started, touristry accounted for “ about 10 per cent of the province ‘s income ” . During the following 23 old ages of force, touristry contributed virtually nil to Kashmir ‘s economic system. Pre-militancy, international tourers constituted a important part of those sing Kashmir. They spent on high-end handcraft merchandises besides puting in adventure musca volitanss like trekking, skiing and rafting. However, Foreign Tourist Arrival ( FTA ) received a major blow after Al-Farhan, a hawkish administration, kidnapped in the early 1890ss a group of western tourers who were trekking in Pahalgam.
They were ne’er found. As a consequence negative travel advisories against the visit toA KashmirA were imposed by assorted foreign states. This adversely affected the tourer gross generated by foreign visitants.
Militants besides saw Indian tourers as soft marks.The impact of such violent incidents surely deters people from the remainder of India and abroad from coming to Kashmir vale. Locals have observed that such incidents cause around 50 per cent diminution in the figure of tourers because they either pack their bags and leave or cut short their visit or even worse bad oral cavity about the state of affairs in the vale to possible visitants.
Tourists non merely awful being caught up in force related incidents but besides fear being used as sureties or killed after snatch.Such has been the impact of struggle in the vale that its chief and the lone metropolis Srinagar has been declared as the most threatened site in India, by the World Monuments Fund ( WMF ) , puting it on the 2008 List of Most Endangered Sites ( Winter & A ; Punjabi, 2010 ) .
Unrest and Unemployment in Tourism Sector.
Harmonizing to enter the province lost 27 million tourers from 1989-2002 taking to tourism gross loss of $ 3.6 billion which in bend caused impossible losingss to those who drew employment from it.
A survey conducted by Jawaharlal Nehru University reveals that 66 % of Houseboat proprietors changed their business during convulsion.
Table 3: Relationship between agitation and employment in touristry sector.[ 3 ]
Relationship between Unrest – Tourism and Employment ( In Percentage )
Impact of Unrest on touristryHouseboat proprietorsHotel proprietorsShikara proprietorsChange in businessduring Unrest665445Average degree of tenancy by tourers before Unrest787080Average degree of tenancy by tourers during Unrest7810With concerns making to lowest ebb many hotels, eating house and guest house proprietors declared to shut down ensuing in the loss of employment for those associated. Many stakeholders found themselves at the having terminal and were forced to look for alternate beginnings of income. The employability is this sector is still considered volatile as any hawkish rebellion will intend cold concern for touristry industry.The industry has a immense employment coevals capacity which unluckily remains untapped due to the above stated facts. The undermentioned figure will give more penetration to this point of view.
Table 4: Estimated Employment Generation for Kashmir Circuit[ 4 ]
Srinagar ( Chashma Shahi, Botanical Garden, Dal Lake, Nishat Bagh, Shalimar Bagh, Dachigham National Park, Hazratbal Shrine )74,810Gulmarg52,650Watlab ( Wular Lake )72, 228Sonmarg24,570Manasbal34,164Tangmarg92,742
After inventing the Tourism Development Plan, the govt. expects a Entire Employment Generation of 34.062 hundred thousand boulder clay 2020 if any struggle driven activity does n’t move as a route block.
Table 5: Coevals of Employment on Implementation of Tourism Development Plan[ 5 ]
Entire direct benefit ( Rs. In crore )
Entire direct benefit ( Rs.
In crore )
[ Col. ( 2 ) + ( 3 ) ]
( Rs. In crore )
6. Effect on Handicraft and Carpet Industry
The handcraft industry occupies an of import place in the economic system of J & A ; K and provides employment to more than 3 lakh people. It is to a great extent dependent on touristry for its endurance because this sector is indirectly linked to the tourer reaching. Tourists frequently purchase the universe celebrated Kashmiri rugs, shawls and crewel embellishment.
Paper machie points, wooden art-ware and Kashmiri carpets have besides been fancied by tourers who love to take them home as keepsakes. However station 1989 the public presentation of this sector besides deteriorated.The barbarous circle of force has led to underdevelopment and frailty versa, and in this gruesome scenario it is the common people of the part who suffer the most. The following tabular array shows the value of production has deteriorated during 1989-90 as Rs.
150 crores from Rs.154 crores in 1988-98. This was the starting period of struggle in Kashmir and during the peak seasons of convulsion i.e.
from summer 2008, 2009 and 2010 ; the production of handcraft has deteriorated.
Table 6: Year Wise Production of Handicrafts and Its Trend Value.[ 6 ]
Actual value of Production ( Rs. in crores )
30 ( Trend value of production )
00991.71A similar downward tendency has besides acutely been felt in the production of handcrafts since combativeness gained impulse. The undermentioned figure shows the production of handcrafts and tendency value twelvemonth wise during 1980-91 to 2010-11. As it is apparent from the figure that the existent value of production during the period of 1989-90 to 1998-99 was lower than the value of additive tendency line, which shows that the production of handcraft sector has non flourished during this period. After that the production of handcraft shows an increasing tendency up to the period of 2008 and from the peak seasons of convulsion, i.e. summer 2008, 2009 and 2010 the production of handcraft has decreased a batch i.
e. from Rs. 1614.59 during 2007-08 to Rs.1100 in 2008-09, Rs.1000 in 2009-10 and Rs.
325 in 2010-11.
The Production of Handicrafts and tendency values.[ 7 ]
figure 2 handicrafts.png
7. Changing Contours and Challenges
Tourism, struggle and peace exist in a mutual triangular relationship ( as shown is the figure below ) in which each impacts the others.
A conceptual model for the interrelatedness of peace, struggle and touristry.
[ 8 ]
model 2.pngTourism is conflict sensitive and positively antiphonal to peace. Conflict decelerates growing of the touristry sector if it leads to force and threatens peace.
Table 7: A list of incidents which led to tourist diminution in the vale.[ 9 ]
Nature of Incident
Old City SrinagarOn July 11, 2006 a run of grenade onslaughts in Srinagar claimed the lives of six tourers and wounded 40. The marks included a tourer coach and the Tourist Reception Centre. A similar onslaught on May 31 against a tourer coach wounded 21. Terrorists besides targeted an uptown Srinagar hotel on Oct 20, 2012.
Lolab ValleyThe country was a rebel fastness until the twelvemonth 2000, but it is now controlled by the Indian ground forces who close the gate after twilight to halt any civilian motion into or out of the valeShalimarAn detonation took topographic point on July 29, 2007 in a tourer coach at Shalimar Gardens. Six tourers were killed and 21 wounded in that detonation.GulmargIn the summer of 2008, a grenade onslaught in Gulmarg killed one tourer and injured five.
BijbeharaOn July 28, 2012 two adult females tourers from Maharashtra were killed and six others were injured when activists hurled a grenade into a Tempo Traveller cab in Bijbehara town in Anantnag territorySeshnagTerrorists attacked the Nunwan cantonment en path to Amarnath Shrine opening fire on the pilgrims. Among the dead were besides seven pilgrims and five workers. Another grenade onslaught on the community kitchen for pilgrims left 15 injured.AnantnagA grenade onslaught in Anantnag killed a pilgrim and a cab driver, and caaused hurts to three individuals.DalgateOn 31 May 2006, activists hurled grenades at two tourers coachs from West Bengal, wounding 22 people. The coachs were attacked at DalgatePahalgamFour tourers, including a kid, were killed and 18 injured on June 12, 2004 in the resort town of Pahalgam.
The tourers were holding tiffin when activists tossed a grenade inside the eating house.Mughal GardensOn 25 May 2006, activists hurled a grenade at a tourer coach killing four individuals and wounding seven others. The tourers were headed for the Mughal gardens and as their coach halted at a velocity ledgeman near Zakura, a grenade was thrown at it. Two adult females and a kid died on the topographic point.
Another individual died in infirmaryHazratbalFour tourers were killed and six others, all of them from Gujarat, were injured in an detonation on their vehicle near Hazratbal on 1st June, 2006SrinagarA Spanish tourer was injured on 16th February, 2013 as vale witnessed several protests to oppose hanging of Afzal GuruPerceivers say that an addition in onslaughts on soft marks such as tourers could stultify the economic system and force Kashmiris to go forth the Valley in hunt of occupations elsewhere.
8. Necessitate to Regenerate Tourism
Tourism is the lone industry which brings economic benefit to the lowest degree straight. The other developmental activities like roads, railroads, building, mega undertakings etc take clip to finish. Sometimes these undertakings are delayed due to displacement, land acquisition, environmental job etc.
But in instance of touristry no such holds are accrued and people are benefited instantly. In other words all the people who come in contact with tourer and its related trades is benefited instantly, for illustration every bit shortly as tourer stairss out of his/her house the benefits started fluxing in footings of his payments to Taxi, Hotel, travel agent, rail/bus/air, shopping etc boulder clay he/she reaches back.In position of this national growing estimated by ASSOCHAM ( The Associated Chambers of Commerce and Industry of India ) and Yes Bank, Jammu and Kashmir State should pitch up itself by seting in topographic point all touristry related activities good in clip so that tourers can bask their circuit to province.
The mention of survey of the above mentioned was necessary here because as Indian tourer and travel industry grows, touristry sector and its allied sectors in Jammu and Kashmir will besides turn since Jammu and Kashmir is one of the major tourer Centre of India.The ministry of touristry Govt. of India has besides launched a particular programme called “ HUNAR SE ROZGAR ” which offers short but choice preparation class covering nutrient and drinks services, nutrient production, housekeeping public-service corporation, bakeshop etc. for creative activity of employable accomplishment among young person who are in the age group of 18 to 28 old ages. Recently a programme has been launched for leaving accomplishments in drive and rock masonry besides.
The cardinal Govt. has already formed assorted working group to bring forth employment, assurance edifice steps etc. Both province and cardinal Govt are working indefatigably towards long enduring peace by affecting all sunglassess of people in assorted activities.
9. Suggestions for Sustainable Tourism Development
There is a strong tie between the province ‘s prosperity and tourer inflow. Tourist footstep is clearly related to force associated with combativeness in the part. Therefore any suggestions and recommendations in country should include consideration of the undermentioned issues:Development of a strong web among authorities and assorted bureaus, touristry industry, involvement groups, host communities, autochthonal communities, etc which would work towards re-marketing Kashmir touristry.
Tourism-related substructure – transit, telecommunications, eating houses, shopping, support services, travel services, diversion and amusement, wellness and exigency services etc should be coupled with sap cogent evidence safety and security systems.Tourism consciousness in the host community and involvement groups. Website and other related media should be used to still any fright among the prospect visitants.
Questions like Is Kashmir safe? What about onslaughts on tourers? What if I get in the thick of an onslaught? Etc. should be addressed to. Interested parties should be given proper confidence and cognition they require.A ‘tourist codification of behavior ‘ for this part should be evolved, which could be applicable to both the tourer industry and consumers likewise. All should purely adhere to the commissariats of codification e.
g. Make non travel trekking near the Line of Control ( the sensitive de-facto boundary line that separates the Indian and Pakistani controlled parts of J & A ; K ) , and seek to avoid flashpoint towns like tral, sopore etc.Identifying new tourist musca volitanss will travel a long manner in heightening touristry potency of the vale.Need to contend the negative force prone image of the province by making monolithic consciousness about the recent tourer inflow.
A web site should be developed wherein people who visited the vale can portion their happy experiences with those who would wish to come. In add-on to this print and electronic media should be involved. The popular societal networking site like Facebook can besides be used.Promote cross boundary line travel and arrange certain tourer based cultural events. Organize educative Kashmir based seminars wherein the negative image of the vale can be curbed before the outside universe.
Jammu and Kashmir authorities celebrated 2010 as “ Visit Kashmir Year ” which can be seen as a large attempt by the province to hike Tourism. On similar lines Cardinal Government has boosted its attempt to advance touristry in Kashmir by opening 104 extremums in Jammu and Kashmir. This move will advance Adventure Tourism in the province.Promote touristry as an embassador and vehicle of understanding peace and harmoniousness. Let people non merely look at it as a medium of amusement but besides as a force which brings ‘hosts ‘ and ‘guests ‘ together wherein they learn understanding and grasp of each other.The cardinal and province authoritiess should jointly set about stairss to better the security state of affairs and instil assurance in tourers who have been the mark of terrorist onslaughts.
The authorities should supply an insurance screen for both domestic and international travelers to the part. The J & A ; K govt is reportedly sing a proposal in this respectA 360 development of touristry and demand to research assorted options is required to add more value to this ailing unit. Govt. of India has initiated stairss for Agri. Tourism.
In J & A ; K horticulture touristry can be promoted this will be an added value for touristry. This will eventually transform and finally advance Agri. /Hort. Tourism by affecting 1000s of husbandmans into it.
Kashmir being No.1 apple manufacturer in India will certainly pull more Agri. /Hort. Tourism.Need to switch from seasonal touristry to all twelvemonth round touristry activity. Kashmir has four distinguishable seasons, each with its ain curious character and typical appeal. Proper touristry selling of each season can increase the tourer activity at least threefold.
The above analysis reveals that the touristry sector suffered a sudden ruin due to the monolithic political perturbation which struck the province. Prosperity was hit on all indexes and development took a back place. This led to a creative activity of a deep economic blank which will take tremendous clip to make full. The demand to the hr is to work towards be aftering sustainable touristry which will be the first measure towards bettering the dilapidated scenario.
Achievement will be influenced by the grade to which planning is taken up with serious attack and a speedy gait.Although the economic resurgence of touristry is an acclivitous undertaking and is riddled with multiple challenges runing from regenerating the industry to tapping the new potencies. However, the chances are tremendous as the province is non merely endowed with scenic beauty but rich vegetations and zoologies every bit good. All it requires is intelligent planning and an Fe will.