Tribute: peoples. Cahokia: the metropolis of the Mississippian

Tribute: The practice ofcollecting goods from conquered peoples.

Cahokia: the metropolisof the Mississippian culture; dense urban culture Kivas: For sacredreligious ceremonies which focused on the life giving forces of rain and maize.Pueblos: Above groundhouses made of heavy clay called adobeChiefdoms: Similar toband or tribe, but they have one main leader, full-time leader, Leader hasadvisors, but no bureaucracy, One source of powerBurial mounds:  artificial hill of earth and stones builtover the remains of the dead. Hunter-gatherer: Earlyhumans who hunted animals and gathered plants for foodClovis Point: EarliestNative American (“Paleoindian”) culture of North America; technologyknown for large, fluted, bifacial stone projectile points used as spear pointsfor big game huntingBeringia: the landmassthat allowed people to come to North American from AsiaContinental Drift: thehypothesis that states that the continents once formed a single landmass, brokeup and drifted to their present locationsFolsom Points: EarlyNative American (immediately following Clovis) culture of North America;technology known for large, fluted, bifacial projectile points used as spearpoints for big game huntingArchaeology: The study ofhuman history and prehistory through the excavation of sites and the analysisof artifacts and other physical remains.

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Artifacts: Somethingobserved in a scientific investigation or experiment that is not naturallypresent but occurs as a result of the preparative or investigative procedure.What:Mexica: An indigenouspeople of the valley of Mexico, known today as the rulers of the Aztec Empire.Iroquoian Tribes: EasternU.S., different language from the Algonquian, lived in rectangular longhouses.

Algonquian Tribes: EasternU.S., lived in wigwams, Northern tribes hunted, Southern farmed.Mississippian Culture: Anurban culture known for their emense earthen mounds.Hopewell Culture: Moundbuilders who lived in Ohio. They were very artistic and built the most mounds inOhio. They were the first to grow corn, travel long distances to barter and usea canoe.

They lived in villages in houses called longhouses. They built FortAncient.Anasazi: Thought to beancestors of the modern Pueblo Indians, inhabited the four corners from aboutA.D.

200-1300 leaving a heavy accumulation of house remains and debris.Southwestern peoples: Thetwo most influential Southwestern cultures were Hohokam and Ancestral Pueblo.Hohokam culture emerged in about 300C.E.

, several centuries after NativeAmericans had begun farming in the Gila and the Salt River valleys of SouthernArizona. They rebuilt irrigation canals that enabled them to harvest two cropsa year. They organized large coordinated workforces to maintain the canals.Ancestral Pueblo originated in about C.E.

1 in the four corners area whereArizona, New Mexico, Colorado, and Utah meet. There after they were harvestingcrops, living in permanent villages, and making pottery. They expanded over awide area and became the most powerful people in the southwest.Woodland peoples: TheEastern Woodlands stretching from the Mississippi valley to the Atlantic Oceanhad abundant water. Water and delicious forests provided woodland Indians witha rich variety of food sources, while the region’s extensive river system facilitatedlong distance travel.Northwest peoples: MostNorthwest coast villages numbered several hundred people who lived inmultifamily houses built of cedar planks.

Trade and welfare with interiorgroups strengthened the wealth and power of chiefs and other elites.California peoples: Riseof chiefdoms on the Northwest coast and in California. Ancestral pueblo culturebegins in Southwest.Archaic-Indians: NativeAmericans living between about 8000 BC and 2500 BC who adapted to a changingenvironment that allowed for greater hunting, fishing, and farming.Paleo-Indians: Archeologistscall them the earliest Americans, established the foundations of Native Americanlife.

These people appears to have traveled within well-defined huntingterritories in bands, groups ranging between 15-50 people.Who:Chapter 1 terms