Tumor Measured and evaluated as indicator of normal

Tumor marker Tumor: Cancer is abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread toother parts of the body. Biomarker:Measured and evaluated as indicator ofnormal biological process or a pathogenic process, or a pharmacologicalresponse to a therapeutic intervention. Characteristic of Ideal biomarker  expression should significantly increase in disease condition  Readily quantifiable in clinical sample It should be economically viable Tumor marker It  is aBiochemical substances produced by cancer cell or by the healthy cell It’s a Substances  found at higher level than normal level  in cancerous condition, which differentiatethe normal cell from cancer cells  Tumor marker seen in: Blood circulation, Body cavity fluidsCell membrane, Cell cytoplasmTumormarker  classification :                 i.           TumorSpecific Antigens  -Specific forsingle individual tumor, present only in tumor cells           Ex:CEA,CA19-9,CA125              ii.

           Tumor-AssociatedAntigens are Found with different tumor of same tissue type Presenton tumor cells and some normal cells Expressed at abnormal concentration whenpresence of cancer                       Ex: Prostate specific antigen, Beta HCG,AFP L3,thryglobin            iii.           Enzyme- 1stgroup identified as a biomarker           ex:ALP            iv.           Hormone usedto detect and monitor the cancer     ex:ACTH               v.           Onco-fetalprotein -anti-sera against cancer          ex:AFP,CEA,PSA            vi.

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           Tissue cellsurface antigen- Blood group Ag using monoclonal antibody detect cancercell                                        ex: CA 125,CA15-3,CA19-9According tosite tumor marker classification:a.     Biochemical /serological marker: b.     detected in blood or body fluidsc.      histochemical/ tissue marker- found in tissue byimmunological testd.     diagnostic markere.     prognostic marker/ predictive markerf.       therapeutic marker clinical use :     Screening     diagnosis    prognosticpredictor                   clinicalstaging of the cancerous condition                  monitoringduring treatment  early detection for recurrence CHARACTERISTICSOF AN IDEAL TUMOUR MARKER          Should not be very costly                sensitivity,        Specificity                                          accuracy         Precision                                           simple to use Tumor markers:CEA (carcino embryonic antigen)–Lungcancer, breast cancer, Colorectal canceralfa feto protein -Hepato cellular carcinoma, Germ cell tumor, HCG(human chorionic gonodotrophin)humanchorionic gonodotrophin(HCG)- Germinal cell tumor of  testis, Ovarian adenocarcinoma,Hepatoma, chorio carcinoma CA 125- Ovariancarcinomacalcitonin – Medullary thyroid cancer CA15-3/ CA27.

29 –  Breastcancer, Liver cancer, colon cancer, ovarian endometrial cancer Prostate specific antigen -Prostate cancer Thyroglobulin –Thyroid cancer 21-Genesignature(oncotype-Dx), 70-Gene signature(mammaprint) & Estrogenreceptor/ progesterone receptor -Breast cancer Cytokeratin fragments21-1- Non smallcell Lung cancer,breast cancer,Insulin-Insulinoma(betacell tumor)Cortisol/ACTH- Equine pars intermedia adenoma, adreno corticaltumorBeta 2microglobulin(B2M) -multiple myeloma,Chroniclymphocytic leukemia PTHrP- Adenocarcinoma ofanal sac,lymphoma  Chromogenin A(CgA) /parathyroid secretory protein sex steroidhormone-Adeno carcinomaHE4 -Ovarian cancer CD20- Non-hodgkinlymphoma Prostaticacid phosphate – Prostate cancer,myeloma    Thymidine kinase – Breast cancer,Nonhodgkin’s lymphoma,Multiple myelomaALP- Metastatic bone,liver,lung,ovary, uterus cancer  Methods of detection of tumor marker:      I.           Immunologicalmethod:              Immuno histochemistry             Radioimmuno assay             ELISA  II.           Cytogeneticanalysis      Fluorescent insitu hybridization(FISH)    Spectral karyotyping    Comparative genomic hybridization    III.           Geneticanalysis          Sequencing       Gel electrophoresis IV.

           proteomics       Surface enhanced laser desorption/ionizationIMMUNOHISTOCHEMISTRY- By linking the antibodies to a dye, The immunoreactivity between the tissue specimensand antibodies can be visualized with the light microscope