Unit 264- The principles of Infection Prevention and Control1.1As employees our responsibility to take precautionary measures to preventand control the spread of infection in the workplace, this means workingsafely to protect myself, other staff, visitors and individuals from infections. Itis important that employees are aware of some of these legislations andregulations that relate to the control and prevention of infection, they are theHealth and Safety at Work Act (HASAWA), the Control of SubstancesHazardous to Health (COSHH) and the Reporting of Injury, Disease andDangerous Occurrences Regulations (RIDDOR).Employees must ensure to attend all necessary trainings that employersprovide regarding infection control and prevention. Must report to senior staffif comes across a hazard and not ignore it as this may cause infection tospread.
Employees need to work safely for infection control, these are e.g. regularhand washing, not coming into work when feeling sick, wearing jewelleriesand using PPE correctly.
As infection can also spread from one person toanother through instruments, linen and equipment, it’s important that allequipments are cleaned correctly by employees.Employees must attend all training provided by the employer, work with andfollow organisational infection control policies and procedures.Also disposing clinical wastes correctly.1.2It is employers responsibility to provide PPE free of charge, equipment,organise training for staff, undertake risk assessment and generally isresponsible for the health and safety of staff in the work environment. Underhealth and safety law and regulations employers have to provide a safeworkplace for all staff and also provide the required PPE and training andinformation for staff.
Inform all staff of infection control policies, procedures and updates, ensurethat all staff are being provided with the necessary information to follow safepractices when working whilst adhering to the law.Employers should make the workplace a safe environment that is safe forwork but also for all individuals and visitors too.In terms of maintaining a safe environment employers are responsible forproviding PPE, cleaning equipment and materials, maintaining equipment andproviding suitable areas for food preparation, washing, toileting and disposingof waste.2.1Most of the legal regulations relating to infection prevention and control comeunder the Health and Safety at Work Act, this act ensure a safe work place foremployers, employees and members of the public by minimising accidents atwork.
The Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations introduced theneed for monitoring health and safety and risk assessment, including infectionprevention and control.The Food Safety Act ensure safe practices for food to avoid contaminationand spreading of infection and includes handling, storing and disposal offood.Legal regulations that come under HASAWA include The Control ofSubstances Hazardous to Health (COSHH), this is relevant as it is about theprevention and control of bacteria and managing the safe storage and use ofhazardous substances.Reporting of Injury Disease and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations(RIDDOR) is relevant as it requires that any infection or disease that is workrelated be recorded and reported.The Health and Safety Executive (HSE), National Institute for Health andClinical Excellence (NICE) and the Food Standards Agency (FSA) thatproduce standards to guide and inform infection prevention and controlpractices.The HSE is an independent regulator for work-related health, safety andillness, provide information and advice to reduce risks of accidents occurringin the workplace including the spread of infections.
NICE is responsible for providing guidance on the most effective ways toprevent, diagnose and treat disease and ill health.The FSA is responsible for food safety and food hygiene and providing adviceon food safety issues.2.
2Environmental Health Policy that safeguards the community’s right to havingclean air, safe and clean water, rubbish and waste disposed of, cleaning andmaintenance of areas open to the public. The NICE guidelines, The PublicHealth Act 184, Social Care Act and companies plicies and procedures thatrelates to infection prevention and control.3.1There are many systems and procedures that provide ways of preventing andcontrolling the spread of infection. Receiving regular information updates atwork and attending training raises everyone’s awareness about infectionprevention and control.There are also public health departments that ensure the safety of localcommunities.Environmental health also involves making sure that food outlets meet therequired food safety standards and that they are routinely inspected.
Training and information is also available for infection control teams.Health care providers are also responsible for providing systems andprocedures for preventing and controlling infection in terms of monitoring anyinfection outbreaks, providing immunisation programmes and using barriernursing in care settings to contain and prevent the spread of infection.In terms of food hygiene, personal hygiene must be observed througheffective hand washing, tying hair back, not wearing jewellery and wearingPPE.
All kitchen utensils and work surfaces need to be kept clean. Food needs tobe stored and cooked correctly.3.2The outbreak of an infection has consequences for individuals, staff and theorganisation.
It can cause ill health to all concerned and in worse casespermanent disablement or even death. Some infections may require peopleto be isolated from others for a period of time, which can impact emotionally.The organisation could lose money if most of the staff are off sick and as theyhave to employ more staff to cover in addition to staff that are off sick. Theorganisation could also be fined, get bad reputation or closure of thedepartment by CQC.
4.1The term risk means the likelihood of a hazard or an activity causing harm.4.2Assisting with personal care and sharing facilities with others involve cominginto contact with body fluids which contain bacteria.
Transfer of body fluidsthrough for not using correct PPE.Places like bathrooms/toilets may be more likely to be contaminated withbacteria.Skin to skin contact transferring from human. Not washing hands before andafter patient contact.Handling of disposing of clinical waste, will also bring you into waste that arecontaminated with bacteria.
4.3Identify the hazard: finding out what the hazards are and what might causeharm.Evaluate the risks: decide who might be harmed and how.Take precautions: decide on what precautions must be taken to remove,reduce or avoid the hazards.Review the risks: review and update if necessary.Report and record outcome: record the findings of the risk assessment and allthose involved and who need toknow should be given explanations and information on how these risks canbe prevented and/or controlled.4.
4Risk assessments are important, because they help us to be aware of therisks involved in any activity and, and know how to reduce or remove the risk.They reduce the risks of accidents ill health to everyone. Makes workplacesaver for everyone and the patients feel saver.
5.2Uniform, aprons and gloves, plastic shoes covers, protective eye cover andnose mask.5.3PPE is used to reduce the risk of bacteria being transferred from one toanother. It form physical barriers from infections and protect staff frominfection carried by individuals and individuals from any bacteria staff may becarrying.5.4The Personal Protective Equipment at Work Regulations set out how PPEshould be used in the workplace and the responsibilities of both employersand employees. Regulations come under the Health and Safety at Work Actin terms of protection and prevention.
5.5It is employees responsibilities to attend training how to use and dispose PPEsafely. Employee is responsible to use PPE correctly as trained to protectthemselves, patients and other people. Employees must also report if anyissues about PPE and not use PPE that is torn.5.6Employers’ responsibilities include providing the correct PPE, this must beprovided free charge. Employers have to make sure that PPE is alwaysavailable when needed and stored correctly.
It is the duty of the employer toassess the need of PPE. Also must train staff and provide them withinformation and guidance on how to use PPE.5.7Wash and dry hands before putting PPE on. Pull apron over head and fastenat the back of your waist. Choose type and size of glove that suitable for you,pull the gloves all the way up to cover your wrists.
When wearing used PPE avoid touching any surface, remove glove from onehand, then slot fingers under the lip of the other glove and remove it. Thenremove other PPE such as apron etc. And dispose them in correct wastebins. Apron should be removed by unfasting ties, pull it away from your neck,lift over head and take it off touching inside only, roll the apron into a bundleand dispose it. Wash and dry hands before moving to the next task.5.8Dispose PPE in the clinical waste.
Disposing PPE correctly will protect youand others.6.1The principles of good personal hygiene include having a wash/ showerregularly to prevent body odour and spreading infection and diseseas.Wearing clean clothing and uniform. Regular hand washing, keeping hairclean and nails trimmed and clean.6.31) Remove any jewellery,2) Wet both hands and apply soap on them.
3) Rub palms together until soap is bubbly.4) Rub each hand over the back of the other.5) Interlock fingers, rub fingers and thumps.6) Rinse and dry hands.6.4Hand washing should be carried out to prevent and control the spread ofinfection. Hands should be washed before starting work, before and afterhandling individual and using PPE.Before and after doing tasks such as using the toilet, handling and servingfood and handling waste.
Also when hands are visibly dirty.6.5There are different types of hand wash soap products that should be used forhand washing.
In communal places should be used liquid soap from adispenser instead of bar, bacterias won’t spread from one to others. Soapcleans hands, removes visible dirt, but don’t destroy bacteria.Antiseptic gels, destroys pathogens and usually used in higher risk ofinfection places.Water, used to rinse soap from hands. Not too hot water, because it candamage skin.
Alcohol-based hand rubs is used as additional protective barrier againstbacteria after hand wash with soap and antiseptic gels.Hand towel/paper towel to dry hands.6.6Skincare is important, because it a barrier against infection. Applying handcream to keep it moisturised so that it won’t become dry.
Poorly looked afterskin can get so dry that cracks which in turn could become the route ofbacteria that can result infection.