Vehicular using NS3 simulator and the performance analysis

network is a new brand of wireless network that operates in an open environment
and this feature has made the network exposed to threats. The proposed scheme
is aimed at securing and enhancing multi-hop communication
in vehicular networks. The scheme was implemented in NS-3 with four different
scenarios, the first three scenarios were based on identified threats of source
based attack, region based attack, and destination based attack respectively,
while the last scenario was based on the proposed scheme. The chapter gives detailed
analysis of simulation results obtained from the NS3.

5.0       Introduction

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In a
world of network innovations such as vehicular network, the mobility nature of
the network nodes and security threats are making the network more complex and
challenging in the design and evaluation. The traditional system of static
calculations is not sufficient enough for validating the implementation of such
complex network. A computer simulation is used to analyze design alternatives
and study the behavior of a new design system or the modification to an
existing system without physically building the system; this is useful in
taking better decision before building the real systems. A simulation model can
also represent the network topology and tasks perform in a network in order to
obtain statistical results about the network’s performance. Therefore, the
technique of modelling and simulation helps in understanding the behaviour of the
modelled system and to predict the effect of changes or upgrades to the system.
 In V2V communication, the vehicles may
not necessary be in the same signal
range, which demands intervention of intermediary vehicle(s) during packet
transmission using multi-hop approach. 
The challenge is to track and identify the vulnerabilities that can
hinder transmission between nodes and save guard the communication in vehicular
networks. The security threats models presented 
in chapter three and acknowledgment based schemed presented in chapter
four were implemented and simulated using NS3 simulator  and 
the performance analysis of the models were presented in this chapter.

5.1       Systems planning


The planning of the
proposed system focused around specific areas of interest under a range of
network layout and network availability, vehicle mobility, traffic flow and
vulnerability control. The planning helps in developing a wider understanding
of traffic flow in the network and vulnerabilities in the package transmission
as well as transmission conjunction control in the system.

5.2       System modelling


Computer models are widely
used in traffic and transportation system analysis (Pursula,
the models in ITS can be classified into microscopic, mesoscopic, macroscopic,
models. Microscopic models study vehicle movements and individual elements of
transportation systems, such as vehicle mobility and individual traveller
behaviour. Mesoscopic models analyze transportation elements in small groups,
within which elements are considered homogeneous. While, Macroscopic models
deal with aggregated characteristics of transportation elements, such as
aggregated traffic flow dynamics and zonal-level travel demand analysis (wikipedia,
wikipedia, 2018).

5.3       Simulation
in vehicular network


Simulation method is one
of the most widely used techniques in network design and management to predict
the performance of a network system and application before the network is
physically built or deployed. To conduct vehicular network simulation, two
components are involve in the process, 
fist is the traffic simulation and the other is network simulation, The
traffic simulation helps in creating traces of mobility model which can be fed
into the network simulation for further analysis. However, a simulation plays a
vital role in emulating real world scenarios before deploying new system
through experiments and testing of the performances and effectiveness of the new
system (Hassan, 2009).

5.4       Simulation tools


To measure performances
and effectiveness of vehicular network model, a simulation tool is required,
various simulation tools exists with deferent capabilities at various levels,
some  tools supports mobility generator
from a vehicular network to generate realistic movement traces of the vehicles
motions. The traces files can be reused or imported into a network simulator as
an input file to study the protocol performances and its application. Some
simulation tools are network simulators 
and do not support mobility generation, but  use to measure performance details of  packet- level simulation of source to
destinations,  route discovery,
background load,  data traffic monitoring
, data transmission , channels utilization and traffic flow. Some simulation
tools combined the features of the network and mobility features (Narendra Mohan Mittal, 2014).