Was the bracero program an exploitation of or opportunity for Mexican laborers? (Be sure to discuss the guarantees, working/living conditions, and Cold War/Red Scare). The bracero program was a moment in crisis where the U.S.
government saw an opportunity to take advantage of the Mexican immigrants. The bracero program was an agreement between the U.S. and Mexican governments that permitted Mexican citizens to take temporary agricultural work in the United States. The managed migration an unprecedented and radical solution to America’s labor needs was prompted by the enormous manpower shortage created by World War II.
Over the program’s 22 year lifespan, more that 4.5 million Mexican Citizens were legally hired for work in the United States, primarily in Texas and California. The U.S.
government needed a program that would give quality laborers low wages and that would “not be a danger” and work under the conditions introduced. Mexico needed to get the installments for the laborers they sent to the U.S., they couldn’t have cared less about the general population in light of the fact that the declarations from the Braceros specified how Mexican authorities would go and let them know not to strike or request anything besides rather to continue crushing their spirit since they “represented Mexico”. While people were off fighting in WWII, there was work to be done and so the U.S. figured to bring the Mexicans here, so they can do all the hard labor, and pay them minimally. During war, the United States utilized all of its available resources.
Men and women of all ages worked day and night in factories and the healthiest and strong young people were sent to the front lines. “The war years dramatically accelerated this rapid urbanization greatly affecting the identity of the Mexican-origin…” (Acuna, 2015). “Bracero” means brazos, arms, the U.S. wanted the immigrants for their working arms. They needed people for labor to run the businesses of Americans but they did not have enough physical bodies, therefore they called upon Mexico. The World War II created many jobs and the need to work for the Mexican families.
Mexico was still dealing with issues from the Great Depression and did not have the jobs necessary to support the population. In the U.S. farm laborers left the fields in droves to seek higher wages in the defense industry.
Mexico did not want to permit their workers to be sent to discrimination prone states in the U.S. Though Mexico felt that there might be a danger to its economic development if many thousands of their workers left. After the bracero agreement became final it was released on April 26, 1943. The original agreement was signed by representatives from both countries.
The braceros lived in poor conditions when they were promised a good place to sleep and to be feed either by the food the employers or they had to purchase food at the store. I don’t think Mexico was very concerned with the living condition of their own people. A lot of these men left their wives and children for what they believed to be a chance to get ahead in life. It turned into a form of slavery in some instances and left the braceros with little to no money. Braceros lived in barracks-style living quarters and worked 12-hour shifts. The part of the film that impacted me was when a former Bracero said he had to work 12hr shifts from 5 to 5 because he worked a laborious job during those hours and it is very hard.
Families in Mexico were separated and the women didn’t want them to leave. The effect on families in Mexico was devastating. They worked in the cotton fields long hours with little food and water in the hot sun.
The used a hoe which was hard on their backs because they had to bend down to use but it was a way for the staff to tell he was working and who wasn’t. The fact that they worked them like that didn’t matter if you were old and young and they didn’t feed them and keep them hydrated. They just gave them a blanket to sleep in large barracks. How do you expect them to work if they don’t have adequate food water and housing. Families were affected because the Bracero’s weren’t making enough money to send home to help take care of their families. Braceros were exploited and harassed and humiliated. In the film it broke my heart to watch and see that the Americans didn’t care if we were hurt, in pain and tired of not being able to be with family.
The Mexican men had to pay money to put their name on a list so they can go the the United States to work for their families.As the Cold War between the Soviet Union and the United States strengthened in the late 1940s and mid 1950s, delirium over the apparent risk postured by Communists in the U.S. wounded up plainly known as the Red Scare.Communists were regularly alluded to as “Reds” for their steadfastness to the red Soviet banner. The Red Scare prompted a scope of activities that had a significant and persevering impact on U.
S. government and society. Elected representatives were investigated to decide if they were adequately faithful to the administration. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) had since a long time back did observation practices inside America with the guide of U.S. locals, particularly in the midst of World War II. As anxiety about Soviet effect created as the Cold War warmed up, U.
S. pioneers made a move. “Red hunters such as the FBI director J.
Edgar Hoover played on the Euro-American belief of a monolithic, worldwide conspiracy directed from Moscow.” (Acuna,2015). The anti-communist organize extended also, most strikingly with the 1938 arrangement of the Special House Committee to Investigate Un-American Activities, which in 1945 turned into the perpetual House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC).
The Braceros suffered a lot during the 1940 and in today’s time there are many ways how we Mexicanos still suffer to be able to support our families.What was the role of Chicanas in the 1960-1980s? How did they participate and/or lead in political/social struggles of the time? How did female activists challenge their male counterparts and bring these important issues to the table? The most famous meaning of a Chicana is a Mexican-American female who is brought up in the United States. La Chicana “has minority status in her own particular land despite the fact that she is, to some degree, indigenous to the Americas and an individual from one of the biggest ethnic gatherings in the United States. She is a woman whose life is time after time described by destitution bigotry, and sexism, in the predominant culture, as well as inside her own particular culture”. The term Chicana was instituted amid the Chicano Movement by Mexican American ladies who needed to set up social, social, and political characters for themselves in America. Chicana alludes to a lady who embracers her Mexican culture and legacy, however at the same time, perceives the way that she is an American. It is a self-chose term that more often than not holds a candle to the current situation to those Mexican-American ladies who recognize a strength of guys in the public eye, and a past filled with segregation and disregard in both the family unit and the working environment.
Ruiz mentioned ” …Mexican women have a rich history of union and political activism…”(74). I know that many of the marches that happen in today’s time is all dominated by men. Women for many years have been able to defend for themselves and other women.
I think it is heroic that women have also been able to prove that we do have a voice in the community. In Vicky Ruiz book, she talks about the Mexican American women; reading this has made me think about the woman in my life, my mother. I thank that my mother gave birth to me here in the United States. Women were seen as housewives and nothing more, they did all the cooking, cleaning, taking care of the children.
Emma Tenayuca was someone to look up too and be involved the way she was. San Antonio local Emma Tenayuca was a pioneering activist required with issues that look like those of current circumstances: uniqueness of rich and poor, and substandard wages and working states of workers and vagrant specialists. In her developmental years Tenayuca took after decision governmental issues of the U.S. furthermore, Mexico. She turned into a labor activist before moving on from secondary school.
She was captured at age 16 when she joined the picket line of specialists on strike against the Finck Cigar Company of San Antonio in 1933. Emma was the secretary of the Texas Communist Party, she was able to lead 6,000 to 10,000 strikers but unfortunately herself and a thousand pecan shellers were taken to jail. Going to jail wasn’t going to stop Emma. Tenayuca’s work led her to an interest in socialism and in 1938 married Homer Brooks, a Party leader. In 1939 she was scheduled to speak at a rally for which legendary mayor Maury Maverick had granted a permit, but when an anti-communist mob caused a riot, she was effectively blacklisted and run out of town.
She divorced Brooks and moved to Houston and San Francisco, pursuing higher education opportunities. She returned to San Antonio as an educator in the 1960s, inspiring generations until her death at age 82 in 1999. Recalling her early arrests, she said, “I never thought in terms of fear. I thought in terms of justice.” It was likely the time when she was given the nickname “La Pasionaria” the passion flower after the equally passionate contemporary Dolores Ibárruri, Spanish Republican heroine of the Spanish Civil War and communist political activist of Basque origin.
I admire all the women activist, they did so much if I were be able to meet them in person I would tell them thank you as many times as I could. There is another activist who became interesting to me as I was reading in Vicky Ruiz. Her name is Dolores Huerta, Protester and work pioneer Dolores Fernández, was considered April 10, 1930, in Dawson, New Mexico, the second posterity of Juan and Alicia Chavez Fernandez. The energetic family combat, and when Dolores was three, her people isolated and her mother moved Dolores and her two kin to Stockton, California. Dolores kept up a relationship with her father, who later transformed into a union lobbyist and a New Mexico state assemblyman.
Juan’s own political and work activism later showed elevating to Dolores. In spite of her accomplishments, Dolores encountered the inclination different Mexicans and Mexican Americans experienced, particularly the general population who were create specialists. At school she was as a not as much as trustworthy administer treated with vulnerability and despise. She was once upbraided by an instructor for taking another understudy’s work in light of how the teacher was impacted that Dolores was unfit, because of her ethnic begin.
Regardless, with time, her family’s cash related conditions pushed ahead. Amidst World War II, Alicia ran a burger joint and a while later bought a lodging in Stockton with her second life accomplice, James Richards. The affiliations served the homestead specialists and day workers, offering sensible rates and with respect to the OK collection of the territory. I as a mujer Mexicana I am proud to be a woman, now I understand the truth behind how we women were able to progress in a way where men didn’t have to dominant others. If a had the chance to march next to women leaders who gave Mexican- American women and others I would be part of the strikes, boycotts, and the marches. Chicana women rights went past the breaking points of an only racial hypothesis of mistreatment implanted in Chicano social patriotism. Through their political preparation, works, gatherings, and associations, Chicanas manufactured an independent women’s activist development.
Since its initial beginnings in the 1960s, Chicana women’s liberation has taken after a direction that has consolidated political activism and scholarly research, more often than not dismissing the partition of the two.