Watershed management To Know about watershed management , itis important to know about watershed .Basically watershed describe an area ofland that contain number of small streams and small rivers that all drain intoa pit or a single large body of water to make a big river, a pond and lake.First time it is explained by the john Wesley, scientist geographer.After that watershed management comeinto account , it describe the planning that how to use land and waterresources to improve the quality andquantity of the water and natural resources with in a watershed. The aim of thewatershed management is to optimizing the use of land , water, biosphere,forest etc.
in an area to limit the drought ,floods, to prevent soil erosion,to improve water availability and increase agriculture product on a land.Watershed management helps to bringabout the best possible balance in the environment between natural resourcesand human being or other living beings. Importance ofwatershed management- · Tocontrol the damaging due to runoff- Runoffhappen due to the melting of snow and heavy rainfall .It is very harmful anddisasters because in this situation water don’t get the proper path to flow andit leads to the landslides types problem which is very dangerous forenvironment.
Thus watershed management helps in controlling the damage byrunoff. Basically in watershed management water get the proper path to flow .The rainfall water and the melted water come through the small streams andchannels into the watershed and reduce the chances of damaging due to therunoff.
· Ithelps to manage and utilize the runoff water for useful purpose-Watershedmanagement helps to use the runoff water in proper direction. Water that iscollect into the watershed is flows out from the watershed through a singleoutlet into the form of larger river or lake. After that outlet water use foragriculture purpose .· Ithelps to control the pollution of the water-Runofffrom rain water and snow melted water contain large amount of pollution intothe water. Watershed management helps to reduce pollution of water and otherimpurities present in the watershed by identifying the different kind ofpollution that are present into the watershed. After that different types ofmethods are used to remove that particular impurity.· Ithelps in restoration of soil quality-Dueto the heavy runoff the soil losses it quality. But watershed managementreduces the heavy runoff , thus it help to improvement and restoration of soilquality .
And also raised its productivity rate.· Ithelps to provide sufficient drinking water-Watershedmanagement helps to reduce the water pollution . Thus water within in awatershed ,which is free from all the pollution takes in the use for drinkingpurpose. So, watershed management helps to supply and securing of clean andsufficient drinking water for the people.· It helps to increasethe production level and income of watershed community.· It helps to plant andanimals by producing secondary resources , which will not cause ecologicalimbalance.· Watershedmanagement helps to increase the life time of the downstream dam becausewatershed acts as alternative path fordams.· Bythe use of watershed management method the excess exploitation of resourcesbecome minimized.
Factoron which watershed management depends- · Slopeof the watershed-Slope of the watershedaffect the momentum of the runoff . If the slop of watershed is too low then,the speed f the runoff through streams or channel decreases , its mean watertake too much time to come to watershed .But if the slope of the watershed istoo high then ,the speed of the runoff through streams increases and it acts asa flood which is dangerous .
So ,the slope of watershed should be proper. Basicallyslope is calculated as the elevation difference between the end point of themain flow path divided by the length of the watershed· Amountof rainfall- Watershed depends upon thesessional rainfall ,greater the rainfall greater will be the storage of waterin the watershed through stream .And less the rainfall lesser will be thestorage of water in the watershed .so, amount of rainfall affect the flow inthe watershed area and also affect storage of water with in a watershed.· Typeof precipitation-Watershed greatlydepends upon the type of precipitation , which affect the runoff. For examplesuppose there is a precipitation A , which occur in the form of rainfall andstarts immediately as surface runoff depending upon the rainfall intensity .there is a another precipitation B, which in the form of snow.it does notresult in the surface runoff.
· Orientationof the watershed –Orientation of thewatershed affect the hydro cycle of the atmosphere. It also affect theevaporation and transpiration losses from the any watershed.· Shape-There are different types of shapes for an watershed .It may be square,rectangle, polygon shaped, circular shaped , triangular etc. If the shape of the watershed is larger then ,it have higher ability to collect more water for long time ,And more water willbe infiltrate , evaporate or it will be utilize by vegetation. I f the shape ofthe watershed is small then, the situation become reversed .The shape of anyland is determine by the geology and weather because it mostly influence thedrainage pattern. The density od any stream and shape affect the rate ofrunoff.
· Size-The size of any watershed have important effect on its functions , Sise of thewatershed determine its quantity to water received, retained, and runoff. Anysmall watershed is pronounced by overlandflow ,which is the main contribution to a peak flow. But in big size watershedthere is no over land flow , the stream flow is the main the main thing whichdetermine peak flow. Watersheddevelopment in india For India watershed isnot a new concept .
If we saw in history of India, we will find that people of India already adapted it by livingalong the riverbank , storing and managing rainfall , runoff and steam flow.So, it were not the new thing for Indians but it is necessary to modified itfor benefit of the mankind.To accelerate thedevelopment of India ,Indian government started to adopt all the programs whichwas based in the watershed management approach. In 1980s government starteddecision about watershed but real work started in 1995.
The focus of all theadopted programs was on the micro-watersheds. From here it took the popularityall over the world. And the number of community based project for microwatershed increases.Basically all theseproject based on the rainfall and runoff harvesting schemes.
These schemescontains a number of works like, building small dams and ground water rechargestructure etc. But we know the real value of these projects when they startedthese projects in rural areas.it was a very big step toward the development ofrural area. Programsrun by Indian government towards watershed management- · PIMEMINISTAR KRISHI SINCHAYEE YOJNA (WATERSHED DEVELOPMENT COMPONENT) OR(WDC-PMKSY) The main objective ofthis program was to maintained theecological balance by harnessing , conserving and increase the vegetation.After some time when the result of this program declare ,it was impressive .
It helps to prevent the soil erosion . it helps to regenerate of naturalvegetation , rainwater harvesting and recharge the ground water table. · NEERANCHALWATERSHED PROGRAM NEERANCHAL is a worldbank assisted national watershed management project. It is started to give strength and provides the technicalassistance to the watershed component of WDC-PMKSY.
This program is implementedin 9 states of India. NAME OF THE WATERSHEDSIN INDIA- · HIMALAYANRANGE WITH ITS KARAKORAM BRANCH-NORTH· VINDHYANAND SATPURA RANGES-CENTRAL INDIA · SAHAYADRIOR WESTERN GHATS-WEST COAST