Webster’s dictionary defines term career as
“one’s life work or employment pursuing the stated occupation as life
work”. Career is “the occupational positions a person gas over many
years”. Career is no simple progression of employment in one or two firms
with a signal profession. Employees are now wanted to exchange performance for
training, learning, and development that keep them marketable (Dessler, 2012).
Robbins and coulter (2009) describe career
as a set of positions occupied by an individual. Also (Bernardin, 2010, 295)
defines career as the sequence of a person’s work- related activities and
behaviors and associated attitudes, values, and aspirations over the span of
Career is sequence of positions occupied by
an individual during the course of his or her life. Each employee has an
aspiration to advance and grow in his life and also a desire to realize a sense
of fulfillment (Singh, 2011, 223).
The term career in organizations can be
simply as the sequence of work experiences an employee may have over time.
Employee’s experience may involve moving from one job to another, career moves
in organizations must link between individual’s needs and organizations’ needs
and objectives (Chebet, 2015, 15-16).
Career is not something that should be left
to chance; instead the evolving world of work, it should be shaped and managed
more by the individual than by the organization. Traditionally, careers tended
to evolve in the context of one or two firms and to progress in linear stages,
as workers moved upward through the hierarchy of positions in an organization
(Cascio, 2013, 379). Durai (2010, 193)
defines career a sequence of upward movements in the career ladder achieved by
an employee. It’s normally accomplished by enhanced and social security.
8.1. 2. Career path:
Career path is the way that demonstrates a
range positions in an incremental form in which the individual moves and
promote through his career life in the organization (Eliza, 2010, 1). Career
path defines as the series of work experiences that prepare an employee for
higher – level jobs (Stewart and Brown, 2011, 381).
2010, 193) defines career path as a systematic and deliberate advancement made
by an individual in his career in the entire work life. It indicates the way in
which one’s career has progressed. Of course, the career path is shaped by
factors such as an individual’s knowledge, skills, ability, and the
opportunities actually available.
Cascio (2013, 395) mention that career path
represents logical and possible sequence of positions that could be held, based
on analysis of what people actually do in an organization.
8.1. 3. Career path development:
Career development is the outcomes
emanating from the interaction of individual career planning and institutional
career management processes (Bernardin, 2013, 295). Career development also
defines as activities that help people manage the progression of their work
experiences across their lines (Stewart and Brown, 2011, 376).
The importance of employee development in
organizations today is best understood in light of changes that have occurred
in the pattern of work experiences that people have over their lifetime
(Stewart and Brown, 2011, 382). Top management has a responsibility to develop
and implement a cost- effective career path programs. The program must fit the
nature of the business, its competitive employment practices, and the current
or (desired) organizational structure. This process is complex because career
development combines individual career planning and organizational career
management (Cascio, 2013, 395).
Employee development is most likely to meet
the organization’s needs. A basic career development system involves four
steps: self- assessment, reality check, goal setting, and action planning. At
each step, both the employee and the organization have responsibilities. The
successful system will be if it is linked to the organization’s objectives and
need with top management’s support and employee participation, the following
figure illustrates these above steps (Noe et al., 2012, 304).
Figure 2. Steps of career development system
8. 1. 4. Career path planning vs. Career
Therefore, career planning must make a
linkage between individual’s needs and organizational needs and objectives. The
individuals must identify their abilities and inspirations; to understand their
needs of training and development, the organization must identify its needs and
opportunities (Eliza, 2010).
(Dessler, 2012) defines Career planning as
“the deliberate process through which someone becomes aware of personal
skills, interests, knowledge, motivations, and other characteristics; and
establishes action plans to attain specific goals.
Career path planning represents a special
important for all employees, especially in light of challenges and rapid
changes. Career path planning seeks to identify needs, aspirations and
opportunities for individual career and the implementation of developing human
resource programs to support that career (Eliza, 2010).
Bernardin (2010, 265) defines career path
planning as “a deliberate process for becoming aware of self,
opportunities, constraints, choices, and consequences; identifying career-
related goals; and programming of work, education, and related developmental
experiences to provide the direction, timing, and sequence of steps to attain a
specific career goals. Career path development has two approaches: career
planning (individual responsibility) and career management (organization
Career management is an ongoing process of
preparing, implementing, and monitoring career plans undertaken by the
individual alone or in concert with the organization’s career system
(Bernardin, 2010, 295). Also, career management is considered to be an
organizational process but implements and monitors career plans undertaken by
individuals alone or within the organization career system (Singh, 2011, 225).
Bernardin (2010, 295) illustrates that
career planning consists of four sub processes: occupational choice;
organizational choice; choice of job assignment; and career self – development.
And also, Career management consists of four sub processes: recruitment and
selection; human resource allocation; appraisal and evaluation; and training
and development. These categories and sub processes declared in the following
Figure. 3. Career path development categories.
Choice of job assignment
Career self- development
Gutteridge, T.G, career path development
systems: the state of practice in career development in organizations,
D.T Hall and associates. / From (Bernardin, 2010, 295).
8.2. Organizational Citizenship Behavior
Organ (1988) defined organizational
citizenship behavior (OCB) as “individual behavior that is discretionary,
not directly or explicitly recognized by any formal reward system and that in
aggregate promotes effective functioning of an organization”. By
discretionary, we mean that behavior isn’t an enforcement requirement of the
role or the job description that is the behavior is rather than a matter of
personal choice, such that its omission is not generally understood as
Organizational citizenship behavior (OCB)
can be defined as intentional activities undertaken by the employees on their
own initiative in order to help other employees and contribute to widely
understand organizational success. The definition of OCB in fact don’t arise
from the job role and formal duties, and the individuals do not receive incentives
for performing them; this is the reason why some authors define organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) with
the concept of Extra- Role Behavior (Turek and Turek, 2015, 3).
Organ (1988) presented five specific determinants of organizational
citizenship behavior (OCB) and the contribution of each to efficiency:
(1) Altruism: is directed
towards other individuals, but contributes to group efficiency by enhancing
individual’s performance; participants help new colleagues and give freely of
(2) Conscientiousness: is
the thoughtful use of time to enhance the efficiency of both individuals and
the group; participants give more time to the organization and exert effort
beyond the formal requirements.
(3) Sportsmanship: increases the amount of time spent on
organizational endeavors; participants decrease time spent on whining,
complaining and carping.
(4) Courtesy: prevents
problems and facilitates constructive use of time; participants give advance
notices, timely reminders and appropriate information.
(5) Civic virtue: promotes the interests of the organization
broadly; participants voluntarily serve on committees and attend functions.
OCB has been an area of interest of researchers for
more than twenty-five years. Different scholars have discussed several
dimensions of OCB. In addition to there being different dimensions of OCB,
there are also different motives for performing OCB. Several scales are also
developed from time to time to measure various dimensions of OCB such as:
Podsakoff, Mackenzie, Moorman and Fetter (1990) adopted the same five
dimensions of organ as mentioned above. This study adopted the five dimensions
of OCB given by Organ and refers to other dimensions discussed by various
Podsakoff et al., (2014) defined OCB as a voluntary
helping behavior which does not necessarily involve the need of organizational
problems for the behavior to occur from the volunteer, however it involves the
willingness and cooperating to help those in need.
9. Methodology of the study:
current study is considered as Descriptive and Analytical study, because it
aims to investigate the impact of career path development on organizational
citizenship behavior in greater Amman municipality.
This study is
essential in terms of style (Basic) and applied in greater Amman municipality
where the purpose of illustration (Explanatory), Deductive in its nature,
because it depends on management theories and previous studies.
9.1. Population and sample:
targeted population of this study was all managers at the middle level in
greater Amman municipality (at the main center), the population size was (122)
random sampling was used to select the study’s sample. The sample size was (90)
respondents were targeted. To collect the primary data (90) questionnaires were
distributed to them, out of which (85) questionnaires were retrieved and only (82)
questionnaires were valid for statistical analysis, indicating response rate of
(91%) valid for the analysis.
9.2. Unit of Analysis:
The unit of analysis consists of all
managers who are located in the middle managerial level in greater Amman
9.3. Data collection: