Webster’s dictionary defines term career as”one’s life work or employment pursuing the stated occupation as lifework”. Career is “the occupational positions a person gas over manyyears”.
Career is no simple progression of employment in one or two firmswith a signal profession. Employees are now wanted to exchange performance fortraining, learning, and development that keep them marketable (Dessler, 2012).Robbins and coulter (2009) describe careeras a set of positions occupied by an individual. Also (Bernardin, 2010, 295)defines career as the sequence of a person’s work- related activities andbehaviors and associated attitudes, values, and aspirations over the span ofone’s life.
Career is sequence of positions occupied byan individual during the course of his or her life. Each employee has anaspiration to advance and grow in his life and also a desire to realize a senseof fulfillment (Singh, 2011, 223).The term career in organizations can besimply as the sequence of work experiences an employee may have over time.
Employee’s experience may involve moving from one job to another, career movesin organizations must link between individual’s needs and organizations’ needsand objectives (Chebet, 2015, 15-16). Career is not something that should be leftto chance; instead the evolving world of work, it should be shaped and managedmore by the individual than by the organization. Traditionally, careers tendedto evolve in the context of one or two firms and to progress in linear stages,as workers moved upward through the hierarchy of positions in an organization(Cascio, 2013, 379). Durai (2010, 193)defines career a sequence of upward movements in the career ladder achieved byan employee. It’s normally accomplished by enhanced and social security.
8.1. 2. Career path: Career path is the way that demonstrates arange positions in an incremental form in which the individual moves andpromote through his career life in the organization (Eliza, 2010, 1). Careerpath defines as the series of work experiences that prepare an employee forhigher – level jobs (Stewart and Brown, 2011, 381). (Durai,2010, 193) defines career path as a systematic and deliberate advancement madeby an individual in his career in the entire work life. It indicates the way inwhich one’s career has progressed. Of course, the career path is shaped byfactors such as an individual’s knowledge, skills, ability, and theopportunities actually available.
Cascio (2013, 395) mention that career pathrepresents logical and possible sequence of positions that could be held, basedon analysis of what people actually do in an organization. 8.1. 3. Career path development:Career development is the outcomesemanating from the interaction of individual career planning and institutionalcareer management processes (Bernardin, 2013, 295). Career development alsodefines as activities that help people manage the progression of their workexperiences across their lines (Stewart and Brown, 2011, 376).The importance of employee development inorganizations today is best understood in light of changes that have occurredin the pattern of work experiences that people have over their lifetime(Stewart and Brown, 2011, 382).
Top management has a responsibility to developand implement a cost- effective career path programs. The program must fit thenature of the business, its competitive employment practices, and the currentor (desired) organizational structure. This process is complex because careerdevelopment combines individual career planning and organizational careermanagement (Cascio, 2013, 395).Employee development is most likely to meetthe organization’s needs. A basic career development system involves foursteps: self- assessment, reality check, goal setting, and action planning. Ateach step, both the employee and the organization have responsibilities.
Thesuccessful system will be if it is linked to the organization’s objectives andneed with top management’s support and employee participation, the followingfigure illustrates these above steps (Noe et al., 2012, 304).Figure 2. Steps of career development system Self- assessment Goal setting Action planning Reality check 8. 1.
4. Career path planning vs. Careerpath management:Therefore, career planning must make alinkage between individual’s needs and organizational needs and objectives.
Theindividuals must identify their abilities and inspirations; to understand theirneeds of training and development, the organization must identify its needs andopportunities (Eliza, 2010).(Dessler, 2012) defines Career planning as”the deliberate process through which someone becomes aware of personalskills, interests, knowledge, motivations, and other characteristics; andestablishes action plans to attain specific goals. Career path planning represents a specialimportant for all employees, especially in light of challenges and rapidchanges. Career path planning seeks to identify needs, aspirations andopportunities for individual career and the implementation of developing humanresource programs to support that career (Eliza, 2010). Bernardin (2010, 265) defines career pathplanning as “a deliberate process for becoming aware of self,opportunities, constraints, choices, and consequences; identifying career-related goals; and programming of work, education, and related developmentalexperiences to provide the direction, timing, and sequence of steps to attain aspecific career goals. Career path development has two approaches: careerplanning (individual responsibility) and career management (organizationresponsibility).Career management is an ongoing process ofpreparing, implementing, and monitoring career plans undertaken by theindividual alone or in concert with the organization’s career system(Bernardin, 2010, 295). Also, career management is considered to be anorganizational process but implements and monitors career plans undertaken byindividuals alone or within the organization career system (Singh, 2011, 225).
Bernardin (2010, 295) illustrates thatcareer planning consists of four sub processes: occupational choice;organizational choice; choice of job assignment; and career self – development.And also, Career management consists of four sub processes: recruitment andselection; human resource allocation; appraisal and evaluation; and trainingand development. These categories and sub processes declared in the followingfigure: Figure. 3. Career path development categories.
Career path development Career planning: Occupational choice Organizational choice Choice of job assignment Career self- development Career Management: Recruitment and selection Human resource allocation Appraisal and evaluation Training and development – Gutteridge, T.G, career path developmentsystems: the state of practice in career development in organizations,D.T Hall and associates.
/ From (Bernardin, 2010, 295). 8.2. Organizational Citizenship Behavior(OCB):Organ (1988) defined organizationalcitizenship behavior (OCB) as “individual behavior that is discretionary,not directly or explicitly recognized by any formal reward system and that inaggregate promotes effective functioning of an organization”. Bydiscretionary, we mean that behavior isn’t an enforcement requirement of therole or the job description that is the behavior is rather than a matter ofpersonal choice, such that its omission is not generally understood aspunishable.
Organizational citizenship behavior (OCB)can be defined as intentional activities undertaken by the employees on theirown initiative in order to help other employees and contribute to widelyunderstand organizational success. The definition of OCB in fact don’t arisefrom the job role and formal duties, and the individuals do not receive incentivesfor performing them; this is the reason why some authors define organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) withthe concept of Extra- Role Behavior (Turek and Turek, 2015, 3).Organ (1988) presented five specific determinants of organizationalcitizenship behavior (OCB) and the contribution of each to efficiency:(1) Altruism: is directedtowards other individuals, but contributes to group efficiency by enhancingindividual’s performance; participants help new colleagues and give freely oftheir time. (2) Conscientiousness: isthe thoughtful use of time to enhance the efficiency of both individuals andthe group; participants give more time to the organization and exert effortbeyond the formal requirements.(3) Sportsmanship: increases the amount of time spent onorganizational endeavors; participants decrease time spent on whining,complaining and carping.
(4) Courtesy: preventsproblems and facilitates constructive use of time; participants give advancenotices, timely reminders and appropriate information.(5) Civic virtue: promotes the interests of the organizationbroadly; participants voluntarily serve on committees and attend functions.OCB has been an area of interest of researchers formore than twenty-five years. Different scholars have discussed severaldimensions of OCB. In addition to there being different dimensions of OCB,there are also different motives for performing OCB.
Several scales are alsodeveloped from time to time to measure various dimensions of OCB such as:Podsakoff, Mackenzie, Moorman and Fetter (1990) adopted the same fivedimensions of organ as mentioned above. This study adopted the five dimensionsof OCB given by Organ and refers to other dimensions discussed by variousscholars.Podsakoff et al., (2014) defined OCB as a voluntaryhelping behavior which does not necessarily involve the need of organizationalproblems for the behavior to occur from the volunteer, however it involves thewillingness and cooperating to help those in need.9. Methodology of the study: Thecurrent study is considered as Descriptive and Analytical study, because itaims to investigate the impact of career path development on organizationalcitizenship behavior in greater Amman municipality. This study isessential in terms of style (Basic) and applied in greater Amman municipalitywhere the purpose of illustration (Explanatory), Deductive in its nature,because it depends on management theories and previous studies.
9.1. Population and sample: Thetargeted population of this study was all managers at the middle level ingreater Amman municipality (at the main center), the population size was (122)managers. A simplerandom sampling was used to select the study’s sample. The sample size was (90)respondents were targeted.
To collect the primary data (90) questionnaires weredistributed to them, out of which (85) questionnaires were retrieved and only (82)questionnaires were valid for statistical analysis, indicating response rate of(91%) valid for the analysis.9.2. Unit of Analysis:The unit of analysis consists of allmanagers who are located in the middle managerial level in greater Ammanmunicipality.
9.3. Data collection: