Whenall laboratory tests are done and it is proved that soil is suitable for constructionof the building then substructure works can be carried out. Firstof all we have to start with a site clearance and removal of top soil. On thesmall building sites it can be done manually by hands with a shovels, picks andwheelbarrows. Depends of nature of the site, soil condition and the amount ofthe soil we decide what mechanical method we are going to use and what plantsto use when cleaning the site. Plants like bulldozer, dumper and excavatorcould be hired and delivered to the building site.
When choosing size of machinesneed to take into account size of foundation, nature of the site and timeelements. In the places where is excavation works are carried out there is aprobability ofground or rain water occurrence. There are several methods how to deal with thisproblem: Waterpump have to be used to pump out the water from trench.
For a small volume ofwater Simple Sump Pumping can be used. Tostop the water flow within the ground can be used a method of insertion of an impermeablebarrier. Anothermethod called Temporary Exclusion can be used to lower of the water table withthe economic depth of 1.5 M can be achieved by subsoil drainage methods, butfor a deeper treatment a pump are needs to be involved.JettedSumps method is similar to Simple Sump method but it will prevent movement ofthe soil. WellPointSystem method is used to lower the water table to position below formationlevel to provide a dry working area.Groundwater can be controlled with a thin Grouted Membranes. This is non-structuralbarriers which are inserted in to the ground to enclose excavation area.
After theproblem with water is solved and excavation works is completed we are moving tonext stage ofcreation the Foundation. For construction of five storey hotel building Piled Foundationis good option. The construction process of Pile Foundation includes a seriesof columns inserted into the ground to transmit the loads of the structure to alower level of subsoil. This type of foundation is suitable for our projectbecause our site is located close to the river and it more likely to be with subsoilwhich may be subjected to moisture movement and low bearing subsoil capacity. It isnecessary to take into account that high water table will increase to high permanentdewatering costs.
Forcreating of Piled Foundation different technics can be used, those are:Replacement Piles, Percussion Bored Piles, Flush Bored Piles, Small Diameter,Rotary Bored Piles, Large Diameter Rotary Bored Piles, Displacement Piles,Timber Piles, Preformed Concrete Piles, Steel Tube Piles, Partially PreformedPiles, Wooden Piles, Driven Insitu Piles and Driven Insitu Piles.