When looking at different workplaces (past and present) theygenerally all have a leader at in one form or another that commands a group ororganization to perform particular tasks. The form of this leader will varyfrom workplace to workplace and they will all have different approaches andphilosophies in order to motivate and enable their team to perform their talksto the best of their ability’s (some being more effective than others).
We can see in many aspects of life that speaking to peopledown on their level makes people feel more comfortable and will make them feelmore comfortable and that they can trust you, whether this be in the work placewith new employees or even young children when you crouch down and talk tothem. Subordinate leadership is a leadership style focused on this and meansthat in the workplace leaders and managers are subordinate centred and treatpeople the right way who may not be in a role with as much responsibility andauthority as a leader. There is a lot more focus on the employees and they are givenat lot more attention as the leader works on a more hands on basis in order toget the best out of the employee.
This can be highly motivating for theemployee as they feel more important and that they are something of worth tothe company as the leader actually cares about each and everyone. However thiscan also go the opposite way and the employees can see this as them not beinggiven as much responsibility to do their work and that they constantly havesomeone looking over their shoulder which can be demotivating. We can see when looking at the ideas of Tannenbaum andSchmidt (1973) that taking an interest and listening to employees up and downthe management ladder is key to success. In an article published in HBR’SMarch-April 1958 issue it is written ‘Its foolish to make decisions oneself onmatters that affect people’. This is very much a subordinate style ofleadership that often goes hand in hand with a democratic style of leadership.This is when the whole staff feel like one big team instead of in boxes withtheir titles on. It means that when decisions are made about that company, everyoneinvolved is consulted and asked on their opinion and it is taken into account asmore often than not the decisions will effect them in way or another.
It isalso a leadership style that means the person at the top engages with theiremployees face to face and can help develop them in that way. This can be seenwith Steve Jobs in the mid 1990’s when Steve developed and expanded isleadership style as up to then he had been very autocratic however at this timehe added democratic dynamic to his leadership through ways such as mentoringhis manufacturing expert Tim Cook and allowed Tim and his lead designer thatpower to make decisions with him.On the other hand company’s leadership styles are sometimes drivenby different goals than the welfare of the employees.
This can often be seen inmanager centred leadership. This is often when a company has come to be soprofit driven that it has a harmful effect on the wellbeing of the employees asthere leadership style has become subservient. This often means that mangersand leadership in authority at a company become unapproachable to employees andthe staff end up not feeling valued and this may not be the best way for thebusiness to thrive in many situations.This leadership style centres itself are people who may bedeemed ‘more important’ to the company and the only views that matter are bythe person at the top. Aspects of this can be seen in autocratic leadership. Thisleadership is all about following the person at the top and doing as you’retold. It is a highly structured and rigid work set up and there tends to not bemuch creativity.
This in many cases can be a very effective style of leading ifdecisions need to be made quickly or the staff are constantly changing or arenot on the same shifts (like at many fast food places where a lot of the staffare on a week to week rota). However this style of leadership is often very demotivatingfor employees as the boss can see bossy and like a dictator and that the views,ideas and feelings are the work force are irrelevant. McDonalds founder Ray Coyis a famous business leader that had a very ridged autocratic leadership stylethat was crucial to the success of McDonalds through his streamline processes,hard work growing their customer case and making the way for their long term success.
The way somebody leads is first and foremost also the waythat they behave and in the 1940’s Ohio State University carried out leadershipstudies in order to find the appropriate qualities that are required. Despitenot attaining any conclusive results they did manage to split leaders into 2areas to understand how different leaders react in different situations withhalf of them being task orientated leaders and that other half being peopleorientated leaders.The task orientated leaders main concern is how they canbest deal with the problem they have with the wellbeing of the staff beingsecond to that. That means that in these situations they are very efficient andorganized leaders that will want to work with staff that are good at followinginstructions. Where as the people orientated leaders where much more concernedwith the inner needs of the staff similarly to Maslow’s hierarchy of needs andwill aim to motivate their staff by having good relations with them and thenthrough this the staff with be very willing and want to work hard for theirboss. Their leader will be encouraging, a good listener and want to help coachand mentor them.
Then in the 1950’s the university of Michigan carried out astudy lead by Dr Renisis in which he concluded that Ohio University failed to realisethat task and relationship behaviours were not as important as it first seemand instead of having two behavioural theories that instead there is a thirdconcept called participative leadership where by the leader will sit down asput together strategies with the whole workforce and they can all decidetogether the best ways of achieve these goals. The different styles that the boss of a company choses canoften be referred to as the way that they lead or manage, however leading ateam of people and managing a team of people are two very different responsibilities.In 1998 John Kotter wrote a book called leading change andwithin this he clearly outlines the differences between leadership and management.
He describes management as ‘a set of processes that can keep a complicated system ofpeople and technology running smoothly’ where as he explains leadership as being a set of processes that creates organizations in the first place oradapts them to significantly changing circumstances. These 2 definitionsprovide and overview of the differences and show us the end goals however thereare many smaller differences that go in the work place that distinguishes and leaderfrom a manager.Arguably the biggestdifference between mangers and leaders is that a leader has a vision for thefuture where as a manger just creates goals. This means that managers are ableto get people to follow their ideas and plans because they want to even if theymay be risky because they believe and trust in the leader however a managerwill only set out well thought through and planned goals that have been calculatedand are just in the best interests of attaining (often) the most money for thecompany. Another big difference is the way that leaders and managers address employees.Leaders are a lot more people based and are good at influencing people withtheir vision and they build trust and loyalty with the stakeholders byremaining committed to the future vision.
Where as mangers focus much more onhow they can achieve these goals not what the goals are, they work out the mostefficient way of making it happen and making sure schemes are in place in orderto achieve the outcome. An example of the differences between these two in themodern day is Liverpool football club. The chairman John Henry appointedMichael Edwards a football director who works with a the chairman to see wherethey want the club to be in the next 10 years and they come up with ideas andvisions for the future like developing the youth facilities for example, then amanager will be appointed in order to carry out the tasks necessary in order tohelp make sure this happens.While it is very clear thatthe leader outlines the visions and sets the goals they’re is also a largeamount of responsibility on the manager in order to attain these goals howeverthe tricky bit for the manager is often what the most effective way of makingthis happen is.Mary Kay Ash provided us witha book in 1985 that outlines her ideas on the ways a manager can be mosteffective in the work place, these are nicknamed ‘Ash’s Golden Rules’.
Thefirst rule is the golden rule and all about respect and treating people how youwould want to be treated. This is one of the 10 commandments and fundamental tothe law in this country whether you’re walking down the street or in a work environment.She then goes on to her second rule which is about praising people for doingwell and acknowledging their achievements which is a tried and tested way ofmotivating others so is key for managers success. Her third rule is titled ‘Buildwith others’ which would require mangers to have a subordinate centred mind-setand the whole focus of this rule is to make the whole workforce feel like onebig family and developing as one by making everyone feel valued. The large portion of herideas are based on honesty and she tells in her fifth rule that being reliableand honest are essential to success along with rule six which tells us that theleader most be prepared to do everything he wants to the work force to do andto get their hands dirty she titles this rule ‘the speed of the leader is thespeed of the gang’. This can be seen where I work in burger when I get amotivation boost when I see the manger helping out and doing small tasks with mesuch as taking the bins out as it makes me feel like the mangers aren’t separatefrom us, instead they are one of us.
This ties in with her seventh rule whichsays that people will support that which they help create and this tells usthat she firmly believed in a democratic style of leadership where everyone hasa say and their thoughts and ideas are heard. Her eighth and final rule is onethat applies to almost every aspect of work and even life in that the lessstress the better and this enables morals not to drop and people to remain calmand coordinated. This can be done in multiple ways either in the work placeeach day like in googles headquarters where they have comfy chairs and relaxationzones or in my dads accountancy firm where they have days out and staff bondingtrips.Team work is crucial inorder to make any group of people work well together and a tried and tested wayof enabling this to happen is by having small work groups in company’s.According to the oxfordliving dictionary, a work group is ‘a group within a workforce that normallyworks together’. These workgroups are often given a task that they will be ableto be put with the work of other work groups in order to achieve a final outcomefor the business. The success of the work group all relies on the individualsworking well with each other which Belbin analyses.
The level of interaction inthese work groups is determined by how many channels of communication there arebetween each of individuals in the work group whether these are wheel, circleetc. The individuals tend to brainstorm together as this brings in freshcreative ideas from each other to shed different lights on the problem they aretry to solve. How the individuals interact to do this is based on theassumption that the workers look at the situation from either a functionality pointof view or a processing point of view and ideally a mix of these would helpgenerate the biggest range of ideas for the workgroup. We are told that thereis no real solid evidence to show whether working individually or in workgroupsis most effective and of course this will vary from business to too businesshowever whether the work group is successful or not, at the very least theindividuals would have learnt and developed new skills of communication andteam work etc.Teamwork is crucial in anybusiness whether it be through working in work groups or departments. Synergyin the workplace is the combined power of group of people being greater thanthe total power of everyone working separately. Synergy is built upon threeelements in the workplace. The first element is diversity and making sure thereis a whole range of people working together with different backgrounds and interestsas this gives the team the biggest scope on different issues.
The second iscreativity and this is brought about by making everyone feel comfortable andputting no boundaries on peoples ideas or views. The third element is possiblythe most difficult one as this is focus. In order for synergy to work in thebusinesses everyone needs to be on the same page and looking towards to samegoal. This is the job of the leader in charger to bring about a clear concise directionfor everyone to follow. We can see this in the modern day as the stadiums arebeing built in Qatar for the 2022 football world cup by AlJaber Engineer LLC (JEC), as they feel they feel they may notbe able to finish in time they have brought in more builders and workers inorder to make sure the job is finished.
Instead of most of the workers workingon small parts of the building projects individually they are all working onone part together to get that section finished then they all move on to adifferent part together as this is the quickest and most efficient way to buildthe stadiums. Synergy!