When in order to motivate and enable their

When looking at different workplaces (past and present) they
generally all have a leader at in one form or another that commands a group or
organization to perform particular tasks. The form of this leader will vary
from workplace to workplace and they will all have different approaches and
philosophies in order to motivate and enable their team to perform their talks
to the best of their ability’s (some being more effective than others).

We can see in many aspects of life that speaking to people
down on their level makes people feel more comfortable and will make them feel
more comfortable and that they can trust you, whether this be in the work place
with new employees or even young children when you crouch down and talk to
them. Subordinate leadership is a leadership style focused on this and means
that in the workplace leaders and managers are subordinate centred and treat
people the right way who may not be in a role with as much responsibility and
authority as a leader. There is a lot more focus on the employees and they are given
at lot more attention as the leader works on a more hands on basis in order to
get the best out of the employee. This can be highly motivating for the
employee as they feel more important and that they are something of worth to
the company as the leader actually cares about each and everyone. However this
can also go the opposite way and the employees can see this as them not being
given as much responsibility to do their work and that they constantly have
someone looking over their shoulder which can be demotivating.

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We can see when looking at the ideas of Tannenbaum and
Schmidt (1973) that taking an interest and listening to employees up and down
the management ladder is key to success. In an article published in HBR’S
March-April 1958 issue it is written ‘Its foolish to make decisions oneself on
matters that affect people’. This is very much a subordinate style of
leadership that often goes hand in hand with a democratic style of leadership.
This is when the whole staff feel like one big team instead of in boxes with
their titles on. It means that when decisions are made about that company, everyone
involved is consulted and asked on their opinion and it is taken into account as
more often than not the decisions will effect them in way or another. It is
also a leadership style that means the person at the top engages with their
employees face to face and can help develop them in that way. This can be seen
with Steve Jobs in the mid 1990’s when Steve developed and expanded is
leadership style as up to then he had been very autocratic however at this time
he added democratic dynamic to his leadership through ways such as mentoring
his manufacturing expert Tim Cook and allowed Tim and his lead designer that
power to make decisions with him.

On the other hand company’s leadership styles are sometimes driven
by different goals than the welfare of the employees. This can often be seen in
manager centred leadership. This is often when a company has come to be so
profit driven that it has a harmful effect on the wellbeing of the employees as
there leadership style has become subservient. This often means that mangers
and leadership in authority at a company become unapproachable to employees and
the staff end up not feeling valued and this may not be the best way for the
business to thrive in many situations.

This leadership style centres itself are people who may be
deemed ‘more important’ to the company and the only views that matter are by
the person at the top. Aspects of this can be seen in autocratic leadership. This
leadership is all about following the person at the top and doing as you’re
told. It is a highly structured and rigid work set up and there tends to not be
much creativity. This in many cases can be a very effective style of leading if
decisions need to be made quickly or the staff are constantly changing or are
not on the same shifts (like at many fast food places where a lot of the staff
are on a week to week rota). However this style of leadership is often very demotivating
for employees as the boss can see bossy and like a dictator and that the views,
ideas and feelings are the work force are irrelevant. McDonalds founder Ray Coy
is a famous business leader that had a very ridged autocratic leadership style
that was crucial to the success of McDonalds through his streamline processes,
hard work growing their customer case and making the way for their long term success.

The way somebody leads is first and foremost also the way
that they behave and in the 1940’s Ohio State University carried out leadership
studies in order to find the appropriate qualities that are required. Despite
not attaining any conclusive results they did manage to split leaders into 2
areas to understand how different leaders react in different situations with
half of them being task orientated leaders and that other half being people
orientated leaders.

The task orientated leaders main concern is how they can
best deal with the problem they have with the wellbeing of the staff being
second to that. That means that in these situations they are very efficient and
organized leaders that will want to work with staff that are good at following
instructions. Where as the people orientated leaders where much more concerned
with the inner needs of the staff similarly to Maslow’s hierarchy of needs and
will aim to motivate their staff by having good relations with them and then
through this the staff with be very willing and want to work hard for their
boss. Their leader will be encouraging, a good listener and want to help coach
and mentor them.

Then in the 1950’s the university of Michigan carried out a
study lead by Dr Renisis in which he concluded that Ohio University failed to realise
that task and relationship behaviours were not as important as it first seem
and instead of having two behavioural theories that instead there is a third
concept called participative leadership where by the leader will sit down as
put together strategies with the whole workforce and they can all decide
together the best ways of achieve these goals.

The different styles that the boss of a company choses can
often be referred to as the way that they lead or manage, however leading a
team of people and managing a team of people are two very different responsibilities.

In 1998 John Kotter wrote a book called leading change and
within this he clearly outlines the differences between leadership and management.
He describes management as ‘a set of processes that can keep a complicated system of
people and technology running smoothly’ where as he explains leadership as being
 a set of processes that creates organizations in the first place or
adapts them to significantly changing circumstances. These 2 definitions
provide and overview of the differences and show us the end goals however there
are many smaller differences that go in the work place that distinguishes and leader
from a manager.

Arguably the biggest
difference between mangers and leaders is that a leader has a vision for the
future where as a manger just creates goals. This means that managers are able
to get people to follow their ideas and plans because they want to even if they
may be risky because they believe and trust in the leader however a manager
will only set out well thought through and planned goals that have been calculated
and are just in the best interests of attaining (often) the most money for the
company. Another big difference is the way that leaders and managers address employees.
Leaders are a lot more people based and are good at influencing people with
their vision and they build trust and loyalty with the stakeholders by
remaining committed to the future vision. Where as mangers focus much more on
how they can achieve these goals not what the goals are, they work out the most
efficient way of making it happen and making sure schemes are in place in order
to achieve the outcome. An example of the differences between these two in the
modern day is Liverpool football club. The chairman John Henry appointed
Michael Edwards a football director who works with a the chairman to see where
they want the club to be in the next 10 years and they come up with ideas and
visions for the future like developing the youth facilities for example, then a
manager will be appointed in order to carry out the tasks necessary in order to
help make sure this happens.

While it is very clear that
the leader outlines the visions and sets the goals they’re is also a large
amount of responsibility on the manager in order to attain these goals however
the tricky bit for the manager is often what the most effective way of making
this happen is.

Mary Kay Ash provided us with
a book in 1985 that outlines her ideas on the ways a manager can be most
effective in the work place, these are nicknamed ‘Ash’s Golden Rules’. The
first rule is the golden rule and all about respect and treating people how you
would want to be treated. This is one of the 10 commandments and fundamental to
the law in this country whether you’re walking down the street or in a work environment.
She then goes on to her second rule which is about praising people for doing
well and acknowledging their achievements which is a tried and tested way of
motivating others so is key for managers success. Her third rule is titled ‘Build
with others’ which would require mangers to have a subordinate centred mind-set
and the whole focus of this rule is to make the whole workforce feel like one
big family and developing as one by making everyone feel valued.

The large portion of her
ideas are based on honesty and she tells in her fifth rule that being reliable
and honest are essential to success along with rule six which tells us that the
leader most be prepared to do everything he wants to the work force to do and
to get their hands dirty she titles this rule ‘the speed of the leader is the
speed of the gang’. This can be seen where I work in burger when I get a
motivation boost when I see the manger helping out and doing small tasks with me
such as taking the bins out as it makes me feel like the mangers aren’t separate
from us, instead they are one of us. This ties in with her seventh rule which
says that people will support that which they help create and this tells us
that she firmly believed in a democratic style of leadership where everyone has
a say and their thoughts and ideas are heard. Her eighth and final rule is one
that applies to almost every aspect of work and even life in that the less
stress the better and this enables morals not to drop and people to remain calm
and coordinated. This can be done in multiple ways either in the work place
each day like in googles headquarters where they have comfy chairs and relaxation
zones or in my dads accountancy firm where they have days out and staff bonding
trips.

Team work is crucial in
order to make any group of people work well together and a tried and tested way
of enabling this to happen is by having small work groups in company’s.

According to the oxford
living dictionary, a work group is ‘a group within a workforce that normally
works together’. These workgroups are often given a task that they will be able
to be put with the work of other work groups in order to achieve a final outcome
for the business. The success of the work group all relies on the individuals
working well with each other which Belbin analyses. The level of interaction in
these work groups is determined by how many channels of communication there are
between each of individuals in the work group whether these are wheel, circle
etc. The individuals tend to brainstorm together as this brings in fresh
creative ideas from each other to shed different lights on the problem they are
try to solve. How the individuals interact to do this is based on the
assumption that the workers look at the situation from either a functionality point
of view or a processing point of view and ideally a mix of these would help
generate the biggest range of ideas for the workgroup. We are told that there
is no real solid evidence to show whether working individually or in workgroups
is most effective and of course this will vary from business to too business
however whether the work group is successful or not, at the very least the
individuals would have learnt and developed new skills of communication and
team work etc.

Teamwork is crucial in any
business whether it be through working in work groups or departments. Synergy
in the workplace is the combined power of group of people being greater than
the total power of everyone working separately. Synergy is built upon three
elements in the workplace. The first element is diversity and making sure there
is a whole range of people working together with different backgrounds and interests
as this gives the team the biggest scope on different issues. The second is
creativity and this is brought about by making everyone feel comfortable and
putting no boundaries on peoples ideas or views. The third element is possibly
the most difficult one as this is focus. In order for synergy to work in the
businesses everyone needs to be on the same page and looking towards to same
goal. This is the job of the leader in charger to bring about a clear concise direction
for everyone to follow. We can see this in the modern day as the stadiums are
being built in Qatar for the 2022 football world cup by AlJaber Engineer LLC (JEC), as they feel they feel they may not
be able to finish in time they have brought in more builders and workers in
order to make sure the job is finished. Instead of most of the workers working
on small parts of the building projects individually they are all working on
one part together to get that section finished then they all move on to a
different part together as this is the quickest and most efficient way to build
the stadiums. Synergy!