technology is coming
Wi-Max Communication technology
School of Engineering, University of
Portsmouth, United Kingdom.
Abstract: Firstly, background information about Wi-max technology is produced.
Architecture of this technology is discussed with working system figure. Usages
and features of Wi-max is explained surely. Wi-max is compared to Wi-Fi network
with comparison table. Advantages and disadvantages of Wi-max are presented.
PEST analysis is made on Wi-Max technology. Current research working of this
technology is described. At last, future plan and conclusion of Wi-max is
wireless communication, IEEE 802.16,
MAN, full access, coverage area.
Wi-max is one type of wireless communication technology and it is
short form for Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave
Access. It is based on standard IEEE 802.16 and designed for
making MAN (Metropolitan Area Network). Wi-max is new telecommunication
protocol which can support full access to internet all over the city within
wide range. This is nearly the same with the Wi-Fi network, however it can be
used with big coverage area. (Kaiser, 2008) (Ergen, 2009)
II. Architecture of wi-max
Wi-max working system contains 2 parts.
These are (1) Base tower
(2) Wi-max receivers.
Main base station can cover and broadcast to wide area up to 3,000
Wi-max receivers can be SS devices (subscriber station) for home
or office usage or USB modem for portable devices that can be directly
Figure-How Wi-Max works (Fig-4-How-WiMAX-works, 2017)
This can be applied
with mobile phones, computers or other media devices that are games and I-pod
etc. This is mostly used in the way of stand-alone self-install indoor type and
SS device is set in the windows of user’s home to achieve good connection. This
type can support Wi-max network accessing into many devices within their home
or work. Another type of accessing Wi-max is using external modem that is USB
dongle. Modems can be directly connected with users’ devices and can get Wi-max
network. This dongle’s antenna has low gain and this type is good for user’s
III. usage of wi-max
Fixed Wi-Max is used
for wireless connection to last mile broadband access. Mobile Wi-Max provides
roaming facility around cities and countries with many devices. This can
provide data, telecommunications and IPTV services and network accessing source
in business continuity plan. This can support internet connection with good
efficiency and hub, router modern technologies. Users can apply internet for
many purposes with different types of Wi-max. This can be used for security as
CCTV network in any places that will be universities, works and also shops or
companies. This is also applied in calling through main stations and people can
call to others with this. Other usages for automation systems in homes or
factory can use Wi-max network for transferring data or signals. Wi-max can
provide triple play services until quality of service and multicasting with the
best technology. (Ergen, 2009)
IV. features of wi-max
A. Wi-Max specifications
Wi-max can support 280Mbps maximum speed. This 802.16a can support
up to 30 miles coverage area. 802.16and 802.16e Wi-max can support 1 to 3
miles. This is licensed or unlicensed airwave. This channel condition is for
outdoor non-line of sight. This quality of service can provide MAC for using
voice or video and many different usages. This 802.16a can support 1.5 to
210MHz bandwidth. 802.16 in 20 to 28MHz and 802.16e Wi-max to 3.6MHz can be
provided. For scalability, this channel bandwidths are able to choose from
operators with 1.5MHz to 20MHz. This MAC can provide many customers to apply.
B. Physical layer and media access control layer
Wi-max can provide physical layer and media access control layer.
1) For physical layer, new 802.16e applies
scalable orthogonal frequency division multiple access and supports very many
antennas connection across MIMO. There are many advantages in many
specifications that are coverage area, usage power, installation system and
2) For media access control layer, this applies
scheduling algorithm where SS devices require just one time initially enter to
network connnection. And this SS will get one access slot from base station.
Although timing slot will be large, this continue allocates to SS and another
subscriber stations are not able to apply this. For the case of overloads or
many SS, this will make better in bandwidth to get stability. This can support
base stations for quality of service parameters’ controlling in the way of
timing slot balance in SS requirements. (FULLTEXT01.pdf. 2017., 2017)
V. comparison between wi-max and wi-fi
Wi-max and Wi-Fi are normally the same and they are just wireless
communication and internet access technologies. Wi-max IEEE 802.16 standard can
provide wider range and much Km coverage. This applies licensed or unlicensed
spectrum for supporting network connections and mostly internet services. This
Wi-max is operating in connection oriented media access control (MAC) system.
Wi-max quality of service system is working with connection lines between main
station and customers’ devices. Individual connection line is operated by
specific scheduling algorithms. Wi-Fi IEEE 802.11 standard can support network
accessing with 2.4GHz and 5GHz RF band. This system is mostly used by end
customers’ device. This Wi-Fi is operating in media access control of CSMA CA
protocols and this is without connections. This quality of service system is
working with contention accessing from SS devices that allows data passing
across wireless access point. This access point must try to interrupt of
others. Due to interrupt of nearer station devices, faraway subscriber station
to access point can decrease amount. Both Wi-max and Wi-Fi can work peer to
peer and wireless ad hoc connection. Wi-Fi provides this networks directly to
end usages by not using access point. But Wi-max usages should place in base
stations area. This two networks are made as various conditions but these are
related to each other. Wi-max uses their subscriber devices to join the network
connection and supports Wi-Fi network in our homes and work.
between Wi-max and Wi-Fi
Licensed or unlicensed
Quality of service
VI. benefits of wi-max
There are many
advantages with Wi-max technology. Their one station provides many customers to
use this. This provides Wi-Fi network so faster than wiring network. This speed
is up to 10 Mbps in 10 Km range. This is regular system and equal frequency
tools must operate. Even roaming, this can get normal rate. This system is safe
and flexible. This networks can also be used within rural regions. This can
support many various usages such as higher speed network, phone calling
services, data transferring and even video usages. This system is possible to
be improving modern technology providing internet networks and multimedia
usages. This can completely help network connection until end usages. This
symmetric system divides voice transferring channel and data transferring
channel. This connections are safety with encryption methods. This technology
is licensed spectrum. This can support portable connectivity with SS devices.
This can provide better bandwidth, speed and coverage area. (Ray, 2009)
VII. problems with wi-max
It has some drawbacks
with Wi-max technology. This network can interfere with Bluetooth wireless
network. Installation for this technology is very big and this tools have
higher cost. Therefore, this technology is not widely applied. And then, this
has high power consumption. During bad weather condition, this Wi-max
connections can have signal interruptions.
VIII. pest analysis
Political, economic, social
and technological impacts are desired as PEST analysis on Wi-max.
A. Political impact
To be successful and attractive network
operator and technology, stability and viability with regulator is important.
It is important not to have political influence and wrong management system.
Improvement and process ICCT requirement is not same with materialize. License
needs when possible requirements for satisfying of government into citizen are
not able to be severe and inflexible. From the practice, flexible services’
responsibility can satisfy needs to operator and can get profit in rural surrounding
and indirectly advantages that are work making and improvement with local
industry. But when license need changes frequently and regulator is not free or
endowed to enough expert, environmental effect can be got. Corruption with
political authorities can be worried. Telecommunication can disagree with
political negotiation and rules needed to be severe effect between operator and
B. Economic impact
Mostly, modern technology uncertainty starts from marketing
economic effect. This is not sure to be good feedbacks of this technology if
this is radical or incremental. Technology driving market is not sure compared
to demand driving market when radical invention is depend on presumed or
extrapolated requirements different with current requirements in demand driving
market with incremental inventions. Although requirements for technologies are
already known, it is not easy for deciding quality and dynamics with economic
C. Social impact
Demand risk is the
problem with users’ feedbacks of this technology and services provided to be
accepted. This is necessarily important to be good demand with this system to
be used by customers.
D. Technological impact
Digital dividing is
main risk point and this is main that operator should decide. Because this will
change most effectively normal running systems and service requirements that
are not economic attractiveness. Convergence system will be 2nd
uncertainty and this is supply driving method. This system is really good
result technology but when it has market’s economic restriction, it needs to
decide probability to specifications of this system for widely usage. (Pareek, 2006)
IX. rresent research work on wi-max
Current improvement of Wi-max version is Wi-max second version.
This new version must be able to support more high speed than old. Now, old
version can support at least 30-40 Mbit/s speed. The main aim with Wi-max
second version is for providing 100 Mbit/s to movable devices’ usages and 1 G
bit/s to portable fix devices’ usages. And then, this will support up to 4G.
Wi-max is nice communication technology
with widely broadband internet access. Wi-max can help users with good quality
and service by different types of applications. Wi-max network can be applied
everywhere and every time with various kinds of accessing. In future, Wi-max’s plan does not solute backhaul to Wi-Fi. This does
adding bandwidth into 3G connection. This will make convergence system in which
many various devices can access to widely different network connections.
and S. Kaiser, Multi-Carrier and Spread Spectrum Systems: From OFDM and
MC-CDMA to LTE and WiMAX, 2nd Edition, John Wiley & Sons, 2008, ISBN 978-0-470-99821-2
ONLINE Available at: https://www.researchgate.net.
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Ergen, Mobile Broadband – Including WiMAX and LTE, Springer, NY, 2009 ISBN 978-0-387-68189-4
2017. smash/get/diva2:828280. ONLINE Available at: https://www.diva-portal.org.
Accessed 25 December 2017.
Pareek, D. (2006). The
Business of WiMAX. England: John Wiley & Sons.
Ramon Ray(2009) WiMax –
Your Fast and Longer Distance WiFi has arrived. Personal Technology.