World War II was a global clash that involved a vast majority of the world’s countries. The war was mainly fought by two alliances. These two groups were known as the Axis Powers, which included Germany, Italy, and Japan, and the Allied Powers, which included Great Britain, France, the Soviet Union, and the United States of America. Led by Germany, the Axis Powers attempted to gain territory to the East and the South, while the goal of the Allied Powers was to defeat the Axis Powers, and keep the world at peace. During the time of World War II, Germany was mainly led by Adolf Hitler, and Italy was mainly dictated by Benito Mussolini, who was the Prime Minister of Italy until 1943.
The U.S. was led by President Franklin D. Roosevelt, who then was replaced by President Harry S. Truman after his death. Great Britain was led by Prime Minister Winston Churchill, and the Soviet Union was led by Joseph Stalin. At the beginning of World War II, the U.
S. was in the Great Depression, which was a severe worldwide economic crisis. However, World War II helped the U.
S. out of the Great Depression by job offerings in the war, and by providing arms for ally countries. The war began on September 1, 1939, when Germany Invaded Poland on the European Front. Britain and France declared war on Germany soon after the invasion of Poland, on September 3, 1939. However, Poland was also invaded by the Soviet Union on September 17, 1939, and the boundary between Germany and the Soviet Union was set along Bug River, Poland. Meanwhile, Italy declared war on France on June 10, 1940, in which Italy defeated France.
Soon after on September 27, 1940, Germany, Italy, and Japan signed the Tripartite Pact, and would become the Axis Powers. A few months later on December, 1940, Britain pushed Italy’s forces through North Africa. After the Axis Powers claimed more territory, Germany executed Operation Barbarossa, and invaded the Soviet Union on June, 1941, occupying what was left of Poland until January, 1945. Not long after Operation Barbarossa, Japan attacked the U.S. by bombing Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941.
Both the U.S. and Great Britain declared war on Japan one day after the bombing of Pearl Harbor. Although Japan captured Singapore from Britain on February, 1942, they lost to U.S. forces in the Battle of Midway on June, 1942, which caused Japanese to be pushed back from America. The Allied forces then defeat the Axis forces in North Africa, on May 12, 1943. Soon after the Allied forces took the island of Sicily on August, 1943, Italy surrendered and joined the Allies on September 3, 1943.
However, Germany took over the Italian army and freed Benito Mussolini from imprisonment, and was set up as the leader of a puppet government in Northern Italy. After the leaders of the Allied Powers meet up in Tehran on November, 1943, the Allies attacked German forces in Normandy, France, on June 6, 1944. The Normandy Invasion, which is also referred to as “D-Day”, was an essential capture to the Allied forces, and Paris was soon liberated from Germany on August 25, 1944. Then on December, 1944, the Battle of the Bulge occured, where Germany launched its last major offensive campaign through the Ardennes region of Belgium. Although Germany seemed to have the upper hand, they soon lost out to Allied forces in January, 1945. While the Allied forces inclosed on Berlin, Germany, Benito Mussolini was was captured by Italian partisans, and was executed on April 28, 1945. Realising his defeat, Adolf Hitler committed suicide in his bomb proof bunker on April 30, 1945. Germany then surrendered its forces in Italy on May 2, and its forces in Holland and Denmark on May 4, 1945.
Karl Doenitz, who took Hitler’s place as the leader of Germany, unconditionally surrendered to the Allied powers on May 7, 1945. Since Japan refused to surrender after the defeat of Italy and Germany, the U.S. dropped an atomic bomb on the island of Hiroshima on August 6, 1945. However Japan still refused to surrender, and as a result of that, the U.S. dropped a second atomic bomb on the island of Nagasaki on August 9, 1945.
Japan then surrendered on August 14, 1945, which was then accepted by U.S. General Douglas MacArthur on September 2, 1945, officially ending World War II.
World War II was primarily fought within Europe, Northern Africa, and the Pacific Islands. Aside from the attack on Pearl Harbor, World War II was not fought on U.S. soil. Due to the amount of men in America going to war, the women of the country had to fill in workplaces, and the unemployment rate dropped down to 10%. The bombing of Pearl Harbor caused 2,400 U.S. casualties and destroyed eight Navy battleships, along with over 100 planes.
Japan bombing Pearl Harbor was the main cause of the U.S. joining the war, and the inclusion of the U.S. was Japan’s biggest mistake in the war. Before the war began, Adolf Hitler wanted to bring Lebensraum, or “living space”, to the people of Germany. To remove the chance of the Soviet Union coming to Poland’s aid, Germany signed a nonaggression pact with the Soviet Union on August 23, 1939.
However, Hitler soon discovered that Poland had signed a treaty with Great Britain, in which Britain would provide military support. This lead to Hitler spreading propaganda and misinformation to German speakers in Poland. Afraid of being invaded, Poland began to call up its soldiers, however, Britain and France persuaded Poland to delay mobilization until August 31. After staging a Polish invasion on itself, Germany invaded Poland on September 1, 1939, causing World War II.