XBee between data bytes to synchronize the transmitter

 XBee Pro S1:XBee Pro S1 is used for wireless transmission of data over terrestrial or underwater. XBee is short range with low data through put wireless communication system. It is used for point-point or multipoint transmission with UART (Universal Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitter) interface. XBee Pro S1 belongs to a popular family XBee. Asynchronous means that data is transferred without support from an external clock. Data bit can be sent at any point. Start and stop bits are used between data bytes to synchronize the transmitter and receiver.

It is most cost effective method.RS 232 Logic operates -13v to -5v indicate a data bit of value 1.For +5v to +13 v indicate a data bit value 0.

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In TTL logic 0 to 0.8 indicate a data bit zero and 2v to 5v indicate high data bit 1.A UART is a block of circuitry responsible for implementing serial communication. One end of the UART is a bus of eight or so data lines on the other is two serial wires- Rx and Tx.

   Arduino UNO:Arduino is used for interfacing sensors and motors. Arduino consists of both a physical programmable circuit board (often referred to as a microcontroller) and a piece of software, or IDE (Integrated Development Environment) that runs on computer, used to write and upload computer code to the physical board is a Micro controller board, contains on board power supply with a USB port to transmit or receive data from personal computer also it’s an open source platform used for building electronics projects. Also facilitate to computer programmers for software development source code, build automation tools and debugger. Arduino boards are able to read analogue and digital inputs. Inputs that microcontroller can receive would be a temperature sensor, a motion sensor and a distance sensor. Digital input (like telling if a button is pushed) to control the speed of motor. Whereas, the output would be a light, a screen and a motor.

Arduino IDE uses a simplified version of C++, making it easier to learn to program. By this it’s easy to create a control system with the help of standard board that can be programmed. The Uno is one of the more popular boards in the Arduino family and a great choice for beginners. To blink the on-board LED need only a small code. The board can operate on an external supply of 6 to 20 volts. If supplied with less than 7V, however, the 5V pin may supply less than five volts and the board may be unstable.

If using more than 12V, the voltage regulator may overheat and damage the board. The recommended range is 7 to 12 volts. Clock speed is 16 MHz .AT mega microcontroller can execute up to 16 million instructions per units second. PWM (Pulse width Modulation) is used for controlling the amplitude of digital signal in order to control devices and applications requiring power or electricity.

A SRAM (Static random access memory) is where the sketch creates and manipulates variables when it runs. EEPROM is memory space that programmers can use to store long-term information.  XBee Explorer USB:XBee explorer provides a gateway between XBee family to computer. XBee explorer USB is easy to use. USB to serial base unit for XBee Pro S1 line. Plug the unit into the XBee Explorer, attach a mini USB cable, and will have direct access to the serial and programming pins on the XBee Pro S1 unit.

The highlight of this board is an FT231 USB-to-Serial converter. In this way translates data between computer and the XBee Pro S1. There’s also a reset button, and a voltage regulator to supply the XBee Pro S1 with plenty of power. In addition, there are four LEDs that’ll help if ever need to identify and remove errors the XBee Pro S1: RX, TX, RSSI (signal-strength indicator), and power indicator. Includes an onboard 3.4V / 500mA voltage regulator to supply sufficient power for the high power 60mW XBee Pro S1 radios.

XBee explorer USB can be used as XB evaluation (XCTU software compatible). By using this define protocols of various XBee’s via XCTU software.XCTU:XCTU (Next Generation Configuration Platform for XBee Pro S1 /RF Solutions) is a multi-platform application compatible with Windows to enable to interact with RF modules through a simple-to-use graphical interface. XCTU supports configuration and support for most Digi RF modules.

In addition, XCTU uses a serial link to interface with RF modules .For communication between radio devices AT and API mode is designed. XCTU contains complex and comprehensive documentation which can be accessed at any time.